IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/manchs/v76y2008i6p675-689.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Excess‐Entry Theorem: The Implications Of Licensing

Author

Listed:
  • ARIJIT MUKHERJEE
  • SOMA MUKHERJEE

Abstract

We show that, in the presence of technology licensing, entry in an industry with Cournot competition may lead to a socially insufficient, number of firms. Insufficient entry occurs if the own marginal cost of the entrant is sufficiently high. Hence, the justification for anticompetitive entry regulation due to the standard excess‐entry result may not be justified in the presence of licensing. However, if the own marginal cost of the entrant is very low, licensing may create excessive entry for those entry costs where entry does not occur without licensing; thus licensing reduces social welfare though it increases competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Arijit Mukherjee & Soma Mukherjee, 2008. "Excess‐Entry Theorem: The Implications Of Licensing," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(6), pages 675-689, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:manchs:v:76:y:2008:i:6:p:675-689
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9957.2008.01088.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9957.2008.01088.x
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/j.1467-9957.2008.01088.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Michael Spence, 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(2), pages 217-235.
    2. Kotaro Suzumura & Kazuharu Kiyono, 1987. "Entry Barriers and Economic Welfare," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 157-167.
    3. Cabral, Luis M. B., 2004. "Simultaneous entry and welfare," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 943-957, October.
    4. Arora, Ashish, 1997. "Patents, licensing, and market structure in the chemical industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 391-403, December.
    5. Fosfuri, Andrea, 2004. "Determinants of international activity: evidence from the chemical processing industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1599-1614, December.
    6. Fosfuri, Andrea, 2004. "Determinants of International Activity: Evidence from the Chemical Industry," CEPR Discussion Papers 4601, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Perry, Martin K, 1984. "Scale Economies, Imperfect Competition, and Public Policy," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(3), pages 313-333, March.
    8. Arijit Mukherjee, 2005. "Innovation, Licensing And Welfare," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 73(1), pages 29-39, January.
    9. Nisvan Erkal, 2005. "Optimal Licensing Policy in Differentiated Industries," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 81(252), pages 51-60, March.
    10. Okuno-Fujiwara, Masahiro & Suzumura, Kotaro, 1993. "Symmetric Cournot Oligopoly and Economic Welfare: A Synthesis," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 3(1), pages 43-59, January.
    11. Anderson, Simon P & de Palma, Andre & Nesterov, Yurii, 1995. "Oligopolistic Competition and the Optimal Provision of Products," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(6), pages 1281-1301, November.
    12. Lahiri, Sajal & Ono, Yoshiyasu, 1988. "Helping Minor Firms Reduces Welfare," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(393), pages 1199-1202, December.
    13. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
    14. N. Gregory Mankiw & Michael D. Whinston, 1986. "Free Entry and Social Inefficiency," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(1), pages 48-58, Spring.
    15. Arijit Mukherjee, 2002. "Subsidy and entry: the role of licensing," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 160-171, January.
    16. Erutku, C. & Richelle, Y., 2000. "Optimal Licensing Contracts and the Value of a Patent," Cahiers de recherche 2000-07, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
    17. Rockett, Katharine, 1990. "The quality of licensed technology," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 559-574, December.
    18. Arghya Ghosh & Hodaka Morita, 2007. "Free entry and social efficiency under vertical oligopoly," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(2), pages 541-554, June.
    19. Mazzoleni, Roberto & Nelson, Richard R., 1998. "The benefits and costs of strong patent protection: a contribution to the current debate," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 273-284, July.
    20. Mukherjee, Arijit & Pennings, Enrico, 2006. "Tariffs, licensing and market structure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(7), pages 1699-1707, October.
    21. Klemperer, Paul D, 1988. "Welfare Effects of Entry into Markets with Switching Costs," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(2), pages 159-165, December.
    22. Arijit Mukherjee & Soma Mukherjee, 2002. "Licensing and the Incentive for Innovation," Keele Economics Research Papers KERP 2002/17, Centre for Economic Research, Keele University.
    23. Lin, Ping, 1996. "Fixed-Fee Licensing of Innovations and Collusion," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 443-449, December.
    24. Michael L. Katz & Carl Shapiro, 1985. "On the Licensing of Innovations," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(4), pages 504-520, Winter.
    25. ERUTKU, C. & RICHELLE, Yves, 2000. "Optimal Licensing Contracts and the Value of a Patent," Cahiers de recherche 2000-07, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    26. Vives, Xavier, 1988. "Sequential entry, industry structure and welfare," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1671-1687, October.
    27. Arghya Ghosh & Souresh Saha, 2007. "Excess Entry in the Absence of Scale Economies," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 30(3), pages 575-586, March.
    28. Kabiraj, Tarun & Marjit, Sugata, 2003. "Protecting consumers through protection: The role of tariff-induced technology transfer," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 113-124, February.
    29. Mukesh Eswaran, 1994. "Cross-Licensing of Competing Patents as a Facilitating Device," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 689-708, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Arijit Mukherjee, 2012. "Social Efficiency of Entry with Market Leaders," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 431-444, June.
    2. Maruyama, Masayoshi & Zennyo, Yusuke, 2017. "Process innovation, application compatibility, and welfare," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1-12.
    3. Leonard Wang & Angela Chao & Jen-yao Lee, 2015. "R&D and Social Inefficiency of Entry," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 181-187, June.
    4. Cao, Hang & Wang, Leonard F.S., 2020. "Social efficiency of entry in a vertically related industry revisited," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 192(C).
    5. Ping-Sing Kuo & Yan-Shu Lin & Cheng-Hau Peng, 2016. "International Technology Transfer and Welfare," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 214-227, February.
    6. Marjit, Sugata & Mukherjee, Arijit, 2013. "Foreign competition and social efficiency of entry," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 108-112.
    7. Arijit Mukherjee & Yingyi Tsai, 2010. "International Outsourcing And Welfare Reduction: An Entry‐Deterrence Story," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 78(6), pages 647-659, December.
    8. Chang, Ray-Yun & Hwang, Hong & Peng, Cheng-Hau, 2013. "Technology licensing, R&D and welfare," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(2), pages 396-399.
    9. Tsuyoshi Toshimitsu, 2020. "Note on the excess entry theorem in the presence of network externalities," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 47(2), pages 271-282, June.
    10. Keisuke Hattori & Takeshi Yoshikawa, 2016. "Free entry and social inefficiency under co-opetition," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 118(2), pages 97-119, June.
    11. Hiroaki Ino & Toshihiro Matsumura, 2012. "How Many Firms Should Be Leaders? Beneficial Concentration Revisited," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1323-1340, November.
    12. Wang, Leonard F.S. & Lee, Jen-yao, 2013. "Foreign penetration and undesirable competition," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 729-732.
    13. Wang, Leonard F.S., 2016. "Do industrial and trade policy lead to excess entry and social inefficiency?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 354-362.
    14. Angela C. Chao & Jen-yao Lee & Leonard F.S. Wang, 2017. "Stackelberg Competition, Innovation and Social Efficiency of Entry," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 85(1), pages 1-12, January.
    15. Chin-Sheng Chen, 2017. "Endogenous Market Structure and Technology Licensing," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 68(1), pages 115-130, March.
    16. Arijit Mukherjee & Udo Broll & Soma Mukherjee, 2009. "The welfare effects of entry: the role of the input market," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 98(3), pages 189-201, December.
    17. Arijit Mukherjee, 2010. "External Economies of Scale and Insufficient Entry," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 365-371, September.
    18. Chin-Sheng Chen, 2017. "Endogenous Market Structure and Technology Licensing," The Japanese Economic Review, Springer, vol. 68(1), pages 115-130, March.
    19. Ghosh, Arghya & Saha, Souresh, 2015. "Price competition, technology licensing and strategic trade policy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 91-99.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Marjit, Sugata & Mukherjee, Arijit, 2013. "Foreign competition and social efficiency of entry," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 108-112.
    2. Arijit Mukherjee & Udo Broll & Soma Mukherjee, 2009. "The welfare effects of entry: the role of the input market," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 98(3), pages 189-201, December.
    3. Tsai, Yingyi & Mukherjee, Arijit & Chen, Jong-Rong, 2016. "Host market competition, foreign FDI and domestic welfare," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 13-22.
    4. Keisuke Hattori & Takeshi Yoshikawa, 2016. "Free entry and social inefficiency under co-opetition," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 118(2), pages 97-119, June.
    5. Ghosh, Arghya & Saha, Souresh, 2015. "Price competition, technology licensing and strategic trade policy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 91-99.
    6. Cabral, Luis M. B., 2004. "Simultaneous entry and welfare," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(5), pages 943-957, October.
    7. de Pinto Marco & Goerke Laszlo, 2019. "Efficiency Wages in Cournot-Oligopoly," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 19(4), pages 1-13, October.
    8. Laszlo Goerke & Marco de Pinto, 2021. "Cost Uncertainty in an Oligopoly with Endogenous Entry," IAAEU Discussion Papers 202105, Institute of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU).
    9. Goerke, Laszlo, 2020. "A political economy perspective on horizontal FDI in a dynamic Cournot-oligopoly with endogenous entry," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    10. Tian Wu & Bohan Zeng & Yali He & Xin Tian & Xunmin Ou, 2017. "Sustainable Governance for the Opened Electric Vehicle Charging and Upgraded Facilities Market," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(11), pages 1-22, November.
    11. Kitamura, Hiroshi & Miyaoka, Akira & Sato, Misato, 2013. "Free entry, market diffusion, and social inefficiency with endogenously growing demand," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 98-116.
    12. Basak, Debasmita & Mukherjee, Arijit, 2016. "Social efficiency of entry in a vertically related industry," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 8-10.
    13. Arijit Mukherjee, 2012. "Social Efficiency of Entry with Market Leaders," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 431-444, June.
    14. Ping-Sing Kuo & Yan-Shu Lin & Cheng-Hau Peng, 2016. "International Technology Transfer and Welfare," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 214-227, February.
    15. Stefano Colombo & Luigi Filippini, 2015. "Patent Licensing with Bertrand Competitors," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83(1), pages 1-16, January.
    16. Arijit Mukherjee, 2012. "Endogenous cost asymmetry and insufficient entry in the absence of scale economies," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 106(1), pages 75-82, May.
    17. Sougata Poddar & Uday Bhanu Sinha, 2010. "Patent Licensing from a High‐Cost Firm to a Low‐Cost Firm," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 86(274), pages 384-395, September.
    18. Arijit Mukherjee, 2010. "External Economies of Scale and Insufficient Entry," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 365-371, September.
    19. Wang, Leonard F.S., 2016. "Do industrial and trade policy lead to excess entry and social inefficiency?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 354-362.
    20. Meunier, Guy & Ponssard, Jean-Pierre, 2020. "Optimal policy and network effects for the deployment of zero emission vehicles," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:manchs:v:76:y:2008:i:6:p:675-689. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/semanuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/semanuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.