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The Licensing of Barbers in the USA

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  • Edward J. Timmons
  • Robert J. Thornton

Abstract

Barbering is one of the earliest professions to be licensed in the USA. This article discusses the origins of barber licensing, as well as its current status and scope, and then estimates the effects that such licensing has had on barbers' earnings. To estimate these effects we use micro‐level data from the 2000 US Census along with several measures of the strictness of state licensing of barbers. Our results suggest that certain licensing provisions may have increased barber earnings by between 11 and 22 per cent. The magnitude of our estimates is somewhat higher than those found in studies examining the effects of licensing in similar professions.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward J. Timmons & Robert J. Thornton, 2010. "The Licensing of Barbers in the USA," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 740-757, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:brjirl:v:48:y:2010:i:4:p:740-757
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8543.2010.00811.x
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Morris M. Kleiner & Alan B. Krueger, 2010. "The Prevalence and Effects of Occupational Licensing," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 676-687, December.
    2. Morris M. Kleiner, 2000. "Occupational Licensing," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 189-202, Fall.
    3. Morris M. Kleiner & Alan B. Krueger, 2008. "The Prevalence and Effects of Occupational Licensing," Working Papers 1069, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    4. A. Frank Adams & John D. Jackson & Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., 2002. "Occupational Licensing in a "Competitive" Labor Market: The Case of Cosmetology," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 23(2), pages 261-278, April.
    5. Friedman, Milton, 2002. "Capitalism and Freedom," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226264202.
    6. Morris M. Kleiner & Alan B. Krueger, 2010. "The Prevalence and Effects of Occupational Licensing," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 48(4), pages 676-687, December.
    7. repec:pri:cepsud:174krueger is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Friedman, Milton, 2002. "Capitalism and Freedom," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226264219, Febrero.
    9. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-338, May.
    10. Robert J. Thornton & Andrew R. Weintraub, 1979. "Licensing in the Barbering Profession," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 32(2), pages 242-249, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Marek Zapletal, 2017. "The Effects of Occupational Licensing Evidence from Detailed Business-Level Data," Working Papers 17-20, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    2. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2018. "Occupational licenses and labor market outcomes in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 45-56.
    3. Joshua Hall & Shree B. Pokharel, 2016. "Barber Licensure and the Supply of Barber Shops: Evidence from US States," Working Papers 16-15, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    4. Pellizzari, Michele & Basso, Gaetano & Brandimarti, Eleonora & Pica, Giovanni, 2021. "Quality and selection in regulated professions," CEPR Discussion Papers 15674, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Maury Gittleman & Mark A. Klee & Morris M. Kleiner, 2018. "Analyzing the Labor Market Outcomes of Occupational Licensing," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(1), pages 57-100, January.
    6. Conor Norris & Edward J. Timmons, 2020. "Restoring vision to consumers and competition to the marketplace: analyzing the effects of required prescription release," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 57(1), pages 1-19, February.
    7. Edward J Timmons & Anna Mills, 2018. "Bringing the Effects of Occupational Licensing into Focus: Optician Licensing in the United States," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 44(1), pages 69-83, January.
    8. Simon James Greenwood & Andrea Kutinova Menclova, 2018. "Analysing the extent and effects of occupational regulation in New Zealand," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(1), pages 21-39, January.
    9. Suyoun Han & Morris M. Kleiner, 2016. "Analyzing the Influence of Occupational Licensing Duration and Grandfathering on Labor Market Outcomes," NBER Working Papers 22810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Morris M. Kleiner & Edward J. Timmons, 2020. "Occupational Licensing: Improving Access to Regulatory Information," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 333-337, December.
    11. Maria Koumenta & Mario Pagliero, 2017. "Occupational Licensing in the European Union: Coverage and Wage Effects," Carlo Alberto Notebooks 525, Collegio Carlo Alberto.
    12. Brian Meehan & E. Frank Stephenson, 2020. "Reducing a Barrier to Entry: The 120/150 CPA Licensing Rule," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 382-402, December.
    13. Suyoun Han & Morris M. Kleiner, 2017. "Analyzing the Influence of Occupational Licensing Duration and Grandfathering on Labor Market Outcomes," Staff Report 556, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    14. J. Mark Ramseyer & Eric Rasmusen, 2013. "Lowering the Bar to Raise the Bar: Licensing Difficulty and Attorney Quality in Japan," Working Papers 2013-12, Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy.
    15. Ilya Kukaev & Edward J. Timmons, 2023. "Certifiably employable?: The effects of occupational regulation on unemployment duration," Working Papers 23-02, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    16. Marc T. Law & Mindy S. Marks, 2017. "The Labor-Market Effects of Occupational Licensing Laws in Nursing," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(4), pages 640-661, October.
    17. Chiara Farronato & Andrey Fradkin & Bradley Larsen & Erik Brynjolfsson, 2020. "Consumer Protection in an Online World: An Analysis of Occupational Licensing," NBER Working Papers 26601, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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