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Marketing Order Suspensions And Fresh Lemon Retail-Fob Margins


  • Richards, Timothy J.
  • Kagan, Albert
  • Mischen, Pamela
  • Adu-Asamoah, Richard


In August 1994, the Secretary of Agriculture announced the termination of the marketing order and the association flow-to-market, or prorate, controls for fresh California and Arizona (CA/AZ) lemons. Lemon growers and handlers have expressed concern over the impact of this decision on retail-FOB margins. This study presents an econometric model of fresh lemon marketing margins that tests for the presence of buyer and seller market power during previous periods of marketing order suspension. The results show that buyer and, to a lesser extent, seller market power cause retail-FOB margins to widen during periods of prorate suspension.

Suggested Citation

  • Richards, Timothy J. & Kagan, Albert & Mischen, Pamela & Adu-Asamoah, Richard, 1996. "Marketing Order Suspensions And Fresh Lemon Retail-Fob Margins," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 28(02), December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:joaaec:15114

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Shalit, Haim & Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 2002. "Estimating Beta," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 95-118, March.
    2. John Schroeter & Azzeddine Azzam, 1991. "Marketing Margins, Market Power, and Price Uncertainty," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 73(4), pages 990-999.
    3. Schroeter, John R, 1988. "Estimating the Degree of Market Power in the Beef Packing Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(1), pages 158-162, February.
    4. Carman, Hoy F., 1981. "Income Tax Reform And California Orchard Development," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 6(02), December.
    5. Daniel H. Pick & Jeffrey Karrenbrock & Hoy F. Carman, 1990. "Price asymmetry and marketing margin behavior: An example for California-Arizona citrus," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(1), pages 75-84.
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    Cited by:

    1. Digal, Larry N. & Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z., 2002. "Market power analysis in the retail food industry: a survey of methods," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 46(4), December.
    2. repec:wfo:wstudy:25398 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Lee L. Schulz & John M. Crespi, 2012. "Presence of Check‐Off Programs and Industry Concentration in the Food Manufacturing Sector," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(2), pages 148-156, March.
    4. Chung, Chanjin & Henneberry, Shida Rastegari & Tostao, Emilio, 2004. "Will The Voluntary Checkoff Program Be The Answer? An Analysis Of Optimal Advertising And Free-Rider Problem In The U.S. Beef Industry," 2004 Annual Meeting, February 14-18, 2004, Tulsa, Oklahoma 34694, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.


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