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Hedging von Mengenrisiken in der Landwirtschaft – Wie teuer dürfen „ineffektive“ Wetterderivate sein?

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  • Musshoff, Oliver
  • Hirschauer, Norbert

Abstract

Since the mid-nineties, agricultural economists discuss the suitability of “weather derivatives†as hedging instruments for volumetric risks in agriculture. Contrary to traditional insurance contracts, the payoffs of such derivatives are linked to weather indices (e.g. accumulated rainfall or temperature over a certain period) that are measured objectively at a defined meteorological station. While weather derivatives thus circumvent the problem of moral hazard and adverse selection, weather derivative markets for the agricultural sector are still in their infancy all-over the world. Some economists attribute this to theoretical valuation problems and the lack of a pricing method which is accepted by all market participants. Others think that the low hedging effectiveness of (standardized and noncustomized) weather contracts cripple the market. Motivated by the question of how weather derivatives should be priced to agricultural firms, this paper describes a risk programming model which can be used to determine farmers’ willingness-to-pay (demand function) for weather derivatives. The model considers both the derivative’s farmspecific risk reduction capacity and the individual farmer’s risk acceptance. Applying it to the exemplary case of a Brandenburg farm reveals that even a highly standardized contract which is based on the accumulated rainfall at the capital’s meteorological station in Berlin-Tempelhof generates a relevant willingness-to-pay. We find that a potential underwriter could even add a loading on the actuarially fair price that exceeds the loading level of traditional insurances. Since transaction costs are low compared to insurance contracts, this indicates that there may be a significant trading potential.

Suggested Citation

  • Musshoff, Oliver & Hirschauer, Norbert, 2008. "Hedging von Mengenrisiken in der Landwirtschaft – Wie teuer dürfen „ineffektive“ Wetterderivate sein?," German Journal of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics, vol. 57(5).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:gjagec:97605
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Cao, M. & Wei, J., 1999. "Pricing Weather Derivative : An Equilibrium Approach," Rotman School of Management - Finance 99-002, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
    2. Richards, Timothy J. & Manfredo, Mark R. & Sanders, Dwight R., 2004. "Pricing Weather Derivatives," Working Papers 28536, Arizona State University, Morrison School of Agribusiness and Resource Management.
    3. Jewson,Stephen & Brix,Anders With contributions by-Name:Ziehmann,Christine, 2005. "Weather Derivative Valuation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521843713, March.
    4. Turvey, Calum G., 2002. "Insuring Heat Related Risks In Agriculture With Degree-Day Weather Derivatives," 2002 Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, CA 19896, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    5. Berg, Ernst & Schmitz, Bernhard, 2007. "Weather-based instruments in the context of whole farm risk management," 101st Seminar, July 5-6, 2007, Berlin Germany 9269, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    6. Vedenov, Dmitry V. & Barnett, Barry J., 2004. "Efficiency of Weather Derivatives as Primary Crop Insurance Instruments," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 29(03), December.
    7. Martin Odening & Oliver Musshoff & Wei Xu, 2007. "Analysis of rainfall derivatives using daily precipitation models: opportunities and pitfalls," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 67(1), pages 135-156, May.
    8. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    9. Peter Alaton & Boualem Djehiche & David Stillberger, 2002. "On modelling and pricing weather derivatives," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 1-20.
    10. Xu, Wei & Odening, Martin & Musshoff, Oliver, 2007. "Indifference Pricing of Weather Insurance," 101st Seminar, July 5-6, 2007, Berlin Germany 9267, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Musshoff, Oliver & Hirschauer, Norbert, 2007. "What benefits are to be derived from improved farm program planning approaches? - The role of time series models and stochastic optimization," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 95(1-3), pages 11-27, December.
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