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Spatial Price Dynamics and Pricing Conduct Of Wheat Markets in Ethiopia


  • Degye, Goshu
  • Admasu, Shibru
  • Belay, Kassa


This paper has examined the spatial integration, price dynamics, and pricing behavior of wheat markets in Ethiopia using 72 months retail price series (July 2001-June 2007) and cross-section data of structural determinants of spatial integration. Dynamic measures of spatial integration including long-run multipliers, speed of spatial price adjustment, and composite index were estimated to measure the magnitude, speed, and extent of spatial linkages and to identify the relative importance and pricing conduct in these markets. The common assertion that Addis Ababa is a central market dictating commodity price formation process in Ethiopia was disproved. Nazreth wheat market was found to be the center of price discovery in the country by dictating price formation in supply markets. The three hypothesized oligopolistic pricing behavior of wheat markets— spatial price discrimination, instantaneous and cooperative pricing, and perfect price matching — were tested. The two hypotheses that wheat markets exercise spatial price discrimination and cooperative pricing were rejected. However, the hypothesis of spatial price discrimination was accepted for some markets trading with Addis Ababa and Nazreth. This is verified to be the result of price discrimination exercised in Addis Ababa and the response of supply markets against the conduct in the destination markets. Supply markets with alternative market outlets were trying to establish short-run market independence depending on the pricing conduct prevalent in the destination markets while those without alternative market outlets were victims of the pricing behavior. This is an indication of inefficient pricing system prevalent in the wheat marketing system. Structural determinants of spatial market integration including inter-market road distance, road density, dissimilarity in per capita wheat production, and dissimilarity in population density were estimated and tested for their possible effect on the level, speed and extent of market integration to identify alternative market development interventions. Except for population density, all the selected factors of market integration were found to significantly determine market integration in Ethiopia. The spatial integration of Ethiopian wheat markets was found to be generally low in magnitude and sluggish in speed because of lack of flexibility and responsiveness of the marketing system.

Suggested Citation

  • Degye, Goshu & Admasu, Shibru & Belay, Kassa, 2009. "Spatial Price Dynamics and Pricing Conduct Of Wheat Markets in Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Economics, Ethiopian Economics Association, vol. 18(2), pages 132-132, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:eeaeje:249606
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.249606

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    2. Negassa, Asfaw & Jayne, Thomas S., 1997. "The Response of Ethiopian Grain Markets to Liberalization," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 55595, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    3. Goletti, Francesco, 1994. "The changing public role in a rice economy approaching self-sufficiency: the case of Bangladesh," Research reports 98, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Kherallah, Mylene & Lofgren, Hans & Gruhn, Peter & Reeder, Meyra M., 2000. "Wheat policy reform in Egypt: adjustment of local markets and options for future reforms," Research reports 115, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Hirotugu Akaike, 1969. "Fitting autoregressive models for prediction," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 21(1), pages 243-247, December.
    6. Minot, Nicholas & Goletti, Francesco, 2000. "Rice market liberalization and poverty in Viet Nam:," Research reports 114, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. Alderman, Harold, 1993. "Intercommodity Price Transmittal: Analysis of Food Markets in Ghana," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 55(1), pages 43-64, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Degye Goshu, 2016. "The Dynamics of Food Price Convergence in Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Economics, Ethiopian Economics Association, vol. 24(1), April.

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