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Women move differently: Job separations and gender

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  • Hirsch, Boris
  • Schnabel, Claus

Abstract

Using a large German linked employer-employee data set and methods of competing risks analysis, this paper investigates gender differences in job separation rates to employment and nonemployment. In line with descriptive evidence, we find lower job-to-job and higher job-to-nonemployment transition probabilities for women than men when controlling for individual and workplace characteristics and unobserved plant heterogeneity. These differences vanish once we allow these characteristics to affect separations differently by gender. When additionally controlling for wages, we find that both separation rates are considerably lower and also significantly less wage-elastic for women than for men. -- Das vorliegende Papier untersucht auf Grundlage eines großen deutschen verbunden Firmen-Beschaftigen-Datensatzes und Methoden der Verweildaueranalyse Geschlechterunterschiede in den Abgangsraten aus bestehenden Beschäftigungsverhältnissen in andere Beschäftigungsverhältnisse und Nichtbeschäftigung. Im Einklang mit den deskriptiven Befunden zeigen sich für Frauen bei Kontrolle für individuelle sowie beobachtete und unbeobachtete Firmenmerkmale niedrigere Jobabgangsraten in Beschäftigung und höhere in Nichtbeschäftigung. Sobald zugelassen wird, dass individuelle wie Firmenmerkmale die Abgangsraten für Frauen und Männer unterschiedlich beeinflussen, verschwinden diese Geschlechterunterschiede jedoch. Wenn außerdem für den Lohn kontrolliert wird, ergeben sich für Frauen niedrigere und weniger lohnelastische Abgangsraten sowohl in Beschäftigung als auch Nichtbeschäftigung.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik und Quantitative Wirtschaftsforschung (IWQW) in its series IWQW Discussion Paper Series with number 06/2010.

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Date of creation: 2010
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:iwqwdp:062010

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Web page: http://www.iwqw.rw.uni-erlangen.de/
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Keywords: job separations; gender; gender pay gap; Germany;

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References

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  1. Ridder, G. & Tunali, I., 1997. "Stratified Partial Likelihood Estimation," Papers 1997/17, Koc University.
  2. Boris Hirsch & Thorsten Schank & Claus Schnabel, 2009. "Works Councils and Separations: Voice, Monopoly, and Insurance Effects," Working Papers 075, Bavarian Graduate Program in Economics (BGPE).
  3. Boris Hirsch & Thorsten Schank & Claus Schnabel, 2010. "Differences in Labor Supply to Monopsonistic Firms and the Gender Pay Gap: An Empirical Analysis Using Linked Employer-Employee Data from Germany," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(2), pages 291-330, 04.
  4. Light, Audrey & Ureta, Manuelita, 1992. "Panel Estimates of Male and Female Job Turnover Behavior: Can Female Nonquitters Be Identified?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(2), pages 156-81, April.
  5. Mark C. Berger & Dan A. Black, 1998. "The Duration Of Medicaid Spells: An Analysis Using Flow And Stock Samples," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 667-675, November.
  6. Barth, Erling & Dale-Olsen, Harald, 2009. "Monopsonistic discrimination, worker turnover, and the gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 589-597, October.
  7. Bowlus, Audra J, 1997. "A Search Interpretation of Male-Female Wage Differentials," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(4), pages 625-57, October.
  8. van den Berg, Gerard J, 1999. "Empirical Inference with Equilibrium Search Models of the Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F283-306, June.
  9. Frederiksen, Anders & Honore, Bo E. & Hu, Luojia, 2007. "Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 141(2), pages 1014-1043, December.
  10. Frederiksen, Anders, 2008. "Gender differences in job separation rates and employment stability: New evidence from employer-employee data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 915-937, October.
  11. Burdett, Kenneth & Mortensen, Dale T, 1998. "Wage Differentials, Employer Size, and Unemployment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(2), pages 257-73, May.
  12. Michael R Ransom & Ronald L. Oaxaca, 2010. "New Market Power Models and Sex Differences in Pay," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(2), pages 267-289, 04.
  13. Postel-Vinay, Fabien & Robin, Jean-Marc, 2002. "Equilibrium Wage Dispersion with Worker and Employer Heterogeneity," CEPR Discussion Papers 3548, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. Berg, G.J. & Ridder, G., 1993. "An empirical equilibrium search model of the labour market," Serie Research Memoranda 0039, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  15. Alda, Holger & Bender, Stefan & Gartner, Hermann, 2005. "The linked employer-employee dataset of the IAB (LIAB)," IAB Discussion Paper 200506, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  16. Boris Hirsch, 2009. "The Gender Pay Gap Under Duopsony: Joan Robinson Meets Harold Hotelling," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 56(5), pages 543-558, November.
  17. repec:dgr:uvatin:2098089 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. Susanne Kohaut & Claus Schnabel, 2003. "Tarifverträge - nein danke!?, Ausmaß und Einflussfaktoren der Tarifbindung west- und ostdeutscher Betriebe," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 223(3), pages 312-331, May.
  19. Loprest, Pamela J, 1992. "Gender Differences in Wage Growth and Job Mobility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 526-32, May.
  20. Royalty, Anne Beeson, 1998. "Job-to-Job and Job-to-Nonemployment Turnover by Gender and Education Level," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(2), pages 392-443, April.
  21. Viscusi, W Kip, 1980. "Sex Differences in Worker Quitting," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(3), pages 388-98, August.
  22. Pencavel, John H, 1972. "Wages, Specific Training, and Labor Turnover in US Manufacturing Industries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 13(1), pages 53-64, February.
  23. Gerard J. van den Berg, 1998. "Empirical Inference with Equilibrium Search Models of the Labor Market," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-089/3, Tinbergen Institute.
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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Women stay longer
    by Economic Logician in Economic Logic on 2010-09-28 14:20:00
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Cited by:
  1. Tinkl, Fabian, 2010. "A note on Hadamard differentiability and differentiability in quadratic mean," IWQW Discussion Paper Series 08/2010, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik und Quantitative Wirtschaftsforschung (IWQW).
  2. Schnitzlein, Daniel D., 2011. "How important is cultural background for the level of intergenerational mobility?," Working Papers 11-12, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
  3. Hirsch, Boris & Schnabel, Claus, 2011. "Let's Take Bargaining Models Seriously: The Decline in Union Power in Germany, 1992-2009," IZA Discussion Papers 5875, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Hirsch, Boris & Mueller, Steffen, 2010. "Firm leadership and the gender pay gap: Do active owners discriminate more than hired managers?," Discussion Papers 72, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
  5. Eryar, Değer & Tekgüç, Hasan, 2013. "Gender effect in explaining the mobility patterns in the labor market: a Case study from Turkey," MPRA Paper 46006, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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