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Do Multinational Enterprises Substitute Parent Jobs for Foreign Ones? Evidence from Firm Level Panel Data

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  • Jozef Konings
  • Alan Murphey

Abstract

This paper analyzes the demand for labor by home multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Europe. To this end we use a unique firm level panel data set of more than 1,200 European multinational enterprises and their subsidiaries that are located in either the European Union, Central and Eastern Europe or both. We investigate whether employment in the MNEs' subsidiaries are substitutes for home employment or in other words we investigate whether European MNEs can easily relocate employment between the parent and their daughter(s). Our main findings can be summarized as follows: (i) We find evidence for substitution effects between parent and foreign employment. A decline of 10% in MNE affiliate's wage costs is associated with a decline in parent employment of between 1.5% and 2% on average. (ii) This effect is mainly driven by firms that operate in the manufacturing sector. Moreover, the substitution effects mainly take place between EU parents and their affiliates located within the EU, rather than affiliates located in Central and Eastern Europe. (iii) We also report results for the non-manufacturing firms, where we find no substitution effects between parents and daughters in the service sectors, while we do find positive substitution effects between parents and their affiliates in Central and Eastern Europe for the firms operating in the wholesale trade and construction sectors. Our results suggest that on average the competition from low wage countries in Central and Eastern Europe did not contribute to a relocation of domestic jobs to Central and Eastern Europe. Substitution effects do take place, however, they mainly occur between parent firms and their affiliates that are located in the European Union.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number 371.

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Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Apr 2001
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2001-371

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Keywords: relocation; multinational enterprises; labor demand;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Jozef Konings & Alan Patrick Murphy, 2006. "Do Multinational Enterprises Relocate Employment to Low-Wage Regions? Evidence from European Multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 142(2), pages 267-286, July.
  2. Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Mündler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," Kiel Working Papers 1243, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  3. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & Michael P. Devereux & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Jan-Egbert Sturm & Xavier Vives, 2008. "Chapter 3: The effect of globalisation on Western European jobs: curse or blessing?," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo Group Munich, vol. 0, pages 71-104, 02.
  4. John W. Budd & Josef Konings & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2002. "International Rent Sharing in Multinational Firms," NBER Working Papers 8809, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Hakkala, Katariina & Heyman, Fredrik & Sjöholm, Fredrik, 2007. "Cross-Border Acquisitions, Multinationals and Wage Elasticities," Working Paper Series 709, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  6. Budd, John W. & Konings, Jozef & Slaughter, Matthew J., 2002. "Wages and International Rent Sharing in Multinational Firms," IZA Discussion Papers 560, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Konings, Jozef, 2004. "The employment effects of foreign direct investment," EIB Papers 4/2004, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  8. Lars Calmfors & Giancarlo Corsetti & John Kay & Seppo Honkapohja & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2005. "Chapter 2: Outsourcing," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo Group Munich, vol. 0, pages 39-50, 03.

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