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Do Multinational Enterprises Substitute Parent Jobs for Foreign Ones? Evidence from European Firm Level Panel Data

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  • Konings, Jozef
  • Murphy, Alan

Abstract

This Paper analyses the demand for labour by home multinational enterprises (MNEs) in Europe. To this end we use a unique firm level panel data set of more than 1,200 European multinational enterprises and their subsidiaries that are located in either the European Union, Central and Eastern Europe or both. We investigate whether employment in the MNEs’ subsidiaries is substitute for home employment – in other words we investigate whether European MNEs can easily relocate employment between the parent companies and their subsidiaries. Our main findings can be summarized as follows: (i) We find evidence for substitution effects between parent and foreign employment. A decline of 10% in MNE affiliate’s wage costs is associated with a decline in parent employment of between 1.5% and 2% on average. (ii) This effect is driven mainly by firms that operate in the manufacturing sector. Moreover, the substitution effects mainly take place between EU parents and their affiliates located within the EU, rather than affiliates located in Central and Eastern Europe. (iii) We also report results for the non-manufacturing firms, where we find no substitution effects between parents and subsidiaries in the service sectors, while we do find positive substitution effects between parents and their affiliates in Central and Eastern Europe for the firms operating in the wholesale trade and construction sectors. Our results suggest that on average the competition from low wage countries in Central and Eastern Europe does not contribute to a relocation of domestic jobs to Central and Eastern Europe. When substitution effects do take place, however, they mainly occur between parent firms and their affiliates that are located in the European Union.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 2972.

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Date of creation: Sep 2001
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2972

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Keywords: labour demand; multinational enterprises; relocation;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Barba Navaretti, Giorgio & Castellani, Davide, 2004. "Investments Abroad and Performance at Home: Evidence from Italian Multinationals," CEPR Discussion Papers 4284, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Jaan Masso & Urmas Varblane & Priit Vahter, 2007. "The Impact Of Outward Fdi On Home-Country Employment In A Low-Cost Transition Economy," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 52, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
  3. Oksanen, Olli-Pekka, 2006. "Are Foreign Investments Replacing Domestic Investments? - Evidence from Finnish Manufacturing," Discussion Papers 1001, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  4. Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 141(4), pages 693-731, December.
  5. Giovanni Ferri & Giovanni Costa, 2007. "The determinants and employment effects of international outsourcing: the case of Italy," series 0016, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Metodi Matematici - Università di Bari, revised Apr 2007.
  6. Gorg, Holger & Hanley, Aoife, 2005. "Labour demand effects of international outsourcing: Evidence from plant-level data," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 365-376.
  7. Michael Hübler, 2007. "A Simple Model of Outsourcing with Cournot Competition," Kiel Working Papers 1320, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  8. Kokko, Ari, 2006. "The Home Country Effects Of Fdi In Developed Economies," EIJS Working Paper Series 225, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.
  9. Hakkala, Katariina & Heyman, Fredrik & Sjöholm, Fredrik, 2007. "Cross-Border Acquisitions, Multinationals and Wage Elasticities," Working Paper Series 709, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  10. Davide Castellani & Ilaria Mariotti & Lucia Piscitello, 2006. "Outward investments and skill upgrading. Evidence from the Italian case," KITeS Working Papers 185, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Nov 2006.
  11. Lundan, Sarianna M., 2007. "The Home Country Effects of Internationalisation," Discussion Papers 1100, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  12. L. Cuyvers & M. Dumont & G. Rayp & K. Stevens, 2002. "Home Employment Effects of EU Firms' Activities in Central and Eastern European Countries," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 02/158, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  13. Stefano Federico & Gaetano Alfredo Minerva, 2005. "Fear of Relocation? Assessing the Impact of Italy’s FDI on Local Employment," Working Papers 102, SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont.

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