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Market Failures and Regulatory Failures: Lessons from Past and Present Financial Crises

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Author Info

  • Acharya, Viral V.

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

  • Cooley, Thomas

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

  • Richardson, Matthew

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

  • Walter, Ingo

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

Abstract

The paper analyzes the financial crisis of 2007–2009 through the lens of market failures and regulatory failures and presents a case that there were four primary failures contributing to the crisis: excessive risk-taking in the financial sector due to mispriced government guarantees; regulatory focus on individual institution risk rather than systemic risk; opacity of positions in financial derivatives that produced externalities from individual firm failures; and runs on the unregulated banking sector that eventually threatened to bring down the entire financial sector. In emphasizing the role of regulatory failures, the paper provides a description of regulatory evolution in response to the panic of 1907 and the Great Depression, why the regulation put in place then was successful in addressing market failures, but how, over time, especially around the resolutions of Continental Illinois, Savings and Loans crisis and the Long-Term Capital Management, expectations of too-big-to-fail status got anchored. The paper proposes specific reforms to address the four market and regulatory failures we identify, and we conclude with some lessons for emerging markets.

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File URL: http://www.adbi.org/files/2011.02.08.wp264.market.regulatory.failures.lessons.gfc.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Asian Development Bank Institute in its series ADBI Working Papers with number 264.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: 08 Feb 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ris:adbiwp:0264

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Keywords: global financial crisis; LTCM; market failures; regulation; emerging markets;

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  1. Lucas, Deborah & McDonald, Robert L., 2006. "An options-based approach to evaluating the risk of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 155-176, January.
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  3. Viral V. Acharya & Philipp Schnabl & Gustavo Suarez, 2010. "Securitization without risk transfer," NBER Working Papers 15730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  16. Timothy J. Kehoe & Edward C. Prescott, 2002. "Great Depressions of the Twentieth Century," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(1), pages 1-18, January.
  17. Penas, Maria Fabiana & Unal, Haluk, 2004. "Gains in bank mergers: Evidence from the bond markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 149-179, October.
  18. John, Kose & John, Teresa A. & Senbet, Lemma W., 1991. "Risk-shifting incentives of depository institutions: A new perspective on federal deposit insurance reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 895-915, September.
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