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A contracting-theory intepretation of the origins of Federal deposit insurance

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  • Edward J. Kane
  • Berry K. Wilson

Abstract

Conventional wisdom holds that the enactment of federal deposit insurance helped small rural banks at the expense of large urban institutions. This paper uses asymmetric information, agency-cost paradigms from corporate finance theory and data on bank stock prices to show how deposit insurance could and did help stockholders of large banks. The broadening stockholder distribution of large banks during the stock market bubble of the late 1920s undermined the efficiency of double liability provisions in controlling incentive conflict among large bank stakeholders. Federal deposit insurance restored depositor confidence by asking government officials to take over and bond the task of monitoring managerial performance and solvency at U.S. banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland in its journal Proceedings.

Volume (Year): (1998)
Issue (Month): Aug ()
Pages: 573-595

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedcpr:y:1998:i:aug:p:573-595

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Keywords: Deposit insurance ; Bank stocks;

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  1. Charles W. Calomiris & Eugene N. White, 1994. "The Origins of Federal Deposit Insurance," NBER Chapters, in: The Regulated Economy: A Historical Approach to Political Economy, pages 145-188 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Benjamin C. Esty, 1997. "The impact of contingent liability on commercial bank risk taking," Proceedings 557, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  3. Gary Gorton, 1986. "Banking panics and business cycles," Working Papers 86-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  4. Randall S. Kroszner & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "Organization Structure and Credibility: Evidence from Commercial Bank Securities Activities Before the Glass-Steagall Act," NBER Working Papers 5256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  6. McNichols, Maureen & Dravid, Ajay, 1990. " Stock Dividends, Stock Splits, and Signaling," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 857-79, July.
  7. Calomiris, Charles W & Kahn, Charles M, 1991. "The Role of Demandable Debt in Structuring Optimal Banking Arrangements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 497-513, June.
  8. Grinblatt, Mark S. & Masulis, Ronald W. & Titman, Sheridan, 1984. "The valuation effects of stock splits and stock dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 461-490, December.
  9. Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
  10. Lamoureux, Christopher G & Poon, Percy, 1987. " The Market Reaction to Stock Splits," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(5), pages 1347-70, December.
  11. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  12. Black, Fischer & Miller, Merton H & Posner, Richard A, 1978. "An Approach to the Regulation of Bank Holding Companies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(3), pages 379-412, July.
  13. Berry K. Wilson & Edward J. Kane, 1996. "The Demise of Double Liability as an Optimal Contract for Large-Bank Stockholders," NBER Working Papers 5848, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Kane, Edward J., 1995. "Three paradigms for the role of capitalization requirements in insured financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 431-459, June.
  15. Lee, Inmoo, 1997. " Do Firms Knowingly Sell Overvalued Equity?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1439-66, September.
  16. Ritter, Jay R, 1991. " The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 3-27, March.
  17. Peltzman, Sam, 1970. "Capital Investment in Commercial Banking and Its Relationship to Portfolio Regulation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(1), pages 1-26, Jan.-Feb..
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Kane, Edward J. & Laeven, Luc, 2008. "Determinants of deposit-insurance adoption and design," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 407-438, July.
  2. Ching-Yi Chung & Gary Richardson, 2006. "Deposit Insurance and the Composition of Bank Suspensions in Developing Economies: Lessons from the State Deposit Insurance Experiments of the 1920S," NBER Working Papers 12594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. DeLong, Gayle & Saunders, Anthony, 2011. "Did the introduction of fixed-rate federal deposit insurance increase long-term bank risk-taking?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 19-25, January.
  4. Acharya, Viral V. & Cooley, Thomas & Richardson, Matthew & Walter, Ingo, 2011. "Market Failures and Regulatory Failures: Lessons from Past and Present Financial Crises," ADBI Working Papers 264, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  5. Laeven, Luc, 2004. "The political economy of deposit insurance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3247, The World Bank.
  6. Malcolm Anderson, 1999. "Accounting History Publications 1998," Accounting History Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 375-384.
  7. Beck, T.H.L., 2008. "Resolution of failed banks by deposit insurers: Cross-country evidence," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3508404, Tilburg University.
  8. Kane, Edward J. & Wilson, Berry, 2002. "Regression evidence of safety-net support in Canada and the U.S., 1893-1992," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 649-671.
  9. Charles W. Calormiris & Berry Wilson, 1998. "Bank Capital and Portfolio Management: The 1930's Capital Crunch and Scramble to Shed Risk," NBER Working Papers 6649, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Kane, Edward J. & Laeven, Luc, 2006. "Deposit insurance design and implementation : policy lessons from research and practice," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3969, The World Bank.

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