What's so Great about the Great Moderation? A Multi-Country Investigation of Time-Varying Volatilities of Output Growth and Inflation
AbstractChanges in volatility of output growth and inflation are examined for eight countries with at least 140 years of uninterrupted data. Time-varying parameter vector autoregressions are used to estimate standard deviations of each variable. Both volatilities rise quickly with World War I and its aftermath, stay relatively high until the end of World War II, and then drop rapidly until the mid- to late 1960s. This Postwar Moderation typically yields the largest decline in output growth volatilities. For all countries, volatilities of both output growth and inflation fall more during this Postwar Moderation than during the Great Moderation, and often the difference is huge. Both volatilities typically reach their lowest levels following the Great Moderation. The Great Moderation often counteracts an increase in volatility that took place in the 1970s, particularly for inflation. In nearly all the countries in our sample, the recent financial crisis has eliminated the stability gains associated with the Great Moderation, and sometimes it has even eroded gains made during the Postwar Moderation. Periods in which a fixed exchange rate system was widespread are associated with relatively low volatilities for both variables. Based on our structural VAR identification, permanent shocks to output account for nearly all of the fluctuations in the volatility of output growth while shocks that have only a temporary effect on output explain most of the fluctuations in inflation volatility. These last two findings suggest that changes in the volatility for each variable are primarily driven by a fundamentally different type of disturbance.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Kansas, Department of Economics in its series WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS with number 201204.
Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2012
Date of revision:
The Great Moderation; The Postwar Moderation; stochastic volatility; permanent-transitory shock decompositions; Markov Chain Monte Carlo; structural vector autoregressions.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
- E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
- E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Guido Ascari & Tiziano Ropele, 2007.
"Trend Inflation, Taylor Principle and Indeterminacy,"
Kiel Working Papers
1332, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Guido Ascari & Tiziano Ropele, 2009. "Trend Inflation, Taylor Principle, and Indeterminacy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(8), pages 1557-1584, December.
- Guido Ascari & Tiziano Ropele, 2005. "Trend Inflation, Taylor Principle and Indeterminacy," Working Papers 93, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Oct 2005.
- Guido Ascari & Tiziano Ropele, 2009. "Trend Inflation, Taylor Principle and Indeterminacy," Quaderni di Dipartimento 097, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods.
- Guido Ascari & Tiziano Ropele, 2009. "Trend inflation, Taylor principle and indeterminacy," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 708, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- James M. Nason & Gregor W. Smith, 2008.
"Great moderations and U.S. interest rates: unconditional evidence,"
2008-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Nason James M. & Smith Gregor W, 2008. "Great Moderation(s) and US Interest Rates: Unconditional Evidence," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-33, November.
- James M. Nason & Gregor W. Smith, 2007. "Great Moderation(s) and U.S. Interest Rates: Unconditional Evidence," Working Papers 1140, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Jon Faust & Eric M. Leeper, 1994.
"When do long-run identifying restrictions give reliable results?,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
462, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Faust, Jon & Leeper, Eric M, 1997. "When Do Long-Run Identifying Restrictions Give Reliable Results?," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(3), pages 345-53, July.
- Jon Faust & Eric M. Leeper, 1994. "When do long-run identifying restrictions give reliable results?," Working Paper 94-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Luca Gambetti & Jordi Gal�, 2009.
"On the Sources of the Great Moderation,"
American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics,
American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 26-57, January.
- Galí, Jordi & Gambetti, Luca, 2008. "On the Sources of the Great Moderation," CEPR Discussion Papers 6632, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jordi Galí & Luca Gambetti, 2006. "On the sources of the Great Moderation," Economics Working Papers 1041, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jun 2007.
- Jordi Gali & Luca Gambetti, 2008. "On the Sources of the Great Moderation," NBER Working Papers 14171, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Keating, John & Valcarcel, Victor, 2012.
Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 168-171.
- John W. Keating & Victor J. Valcarcel, 2012. "Greater Moderations," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201202, University of Kansas, Department of Economics.
- Kilian, Lutz, 2011. "Structural Vector Autoregressions," CEPR Discussion Papers 8515, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Stephen G. Cecchetti & Alfonso Flores-Lagunes & Stefan Krause, 2006.
"Assessing the Sources of Changes in the Volatility of Real Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
11946, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Stephen G Cecchetti & Alfonso Flores-Lagunes & Stefan Krause, 2005. "Assessing the Sources of Changes in the Volatility of Real Growth," RBA Annual Conference Volume, in: Christopher Kent & David Norman (ed.), The Changing Nature of the Business Cycle Reserve Bank of Australia.
- Peter M. Summers, 2005. "What caused the Great Moderation? : some cross-country evidence," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-32.
- John W. Keating & Victor J. Valcarcel, 2012. "The Time Varying Effects of Permanent and Transitory Shocks to Real Output," WORKING PAPERS SERIES IN THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ECONOMICS 201203, University of Kansas, Department of Economics.
- Olivier Blanchard & John Simon, 2001. "The Long and Large Decline in U.S. Output Volatility," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 32(1), pages 135-174.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jianbo Zhang).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.