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The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants

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  • Bertocchi, Graziella

    ()
    (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

  • Strozzi, Chiara

    ()
    (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia)

Abstract

We investigate the origin and evolution of the legal institution of citizenship from a political economy perspective. We compile a new data set on citizenship laws across countries of the world which documents how these institutions have evolved in the postwar period. We show that, despite a persistent impact of the original legislation, they have responded endogenously and systematically to a number of economic determinants, such as migration, the size of government, and the demographic structure of the population. Overall, a large stock of migrants decreases the probability of adoption of a mix of jus soli and jus sanguinis provisions, while it pushes jus sanguinis countries toward the adoption of jus soli elements. The welfare burden proves not to be an obstacle for a jus soli legislation, while demographic stagnation encourages the adoption of mixed and jus soli regimes. We also gauge the potential role of legal, political and cultural determinants, and find that a jus sanguinis origin is a factor of resistance to change, that a high degree of democracy promotes the adoption of jus soli elements while the instability of state borders associated with decolonization impedes it, and that cultural factors have no impact.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2510.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2510

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Keywords: borders; legal origins; international migration; citizenship laws; democracy;

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References

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  1. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
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  15. Gradstein, Mark & Schiff, Maurice, 2004. "The Political Economy of Social Exclusion with Implications for Immigration Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 1087, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. Bertocchi, Graziella & Strozzi, Chiara, 2007. "The Age of Mass Migration: Economic and Institutional Determinants," CEPR Discussion Papers 6050, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Bertocchi, Graziella & Spagat, Michael, 1999. "The Politics of Cooptation," CEPR Discussion Papers 2156, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  20. Graziella Bertocchi & Chiara Strozzi, 2008. "International Migration and the Role of Institutions," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 012, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics.
  21. Mayda, Anna Maria, 2005. "Who is Against Immigration? A Cross-Country Investigation of Individual Attitudes Towards Immigration," CEPR Discussion Papers 5055, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. de la Rica, Sara & Glitz, Albrecht & Ortega, Francesc, 2013. "Immigration in Europe: Trends, Policies and Empirical Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 7778, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Graziella Bertocchi & Chiara Strozzi, 2008. "International migration and the role of institutions," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 137(1), pages 81-102, October.
  3. Ciro Avitabile & Irma Clots-Figueras & Paolo Masella, 2013. "The Effect of Birthright Citizenship on Parental Integration Outcomes," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(3), pages 777 - 810.
  4. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2009. "The Causes and Effects of International Labor Mobility: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2009-06, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), revised Apr 2009.
  5. Graziella bertocchi & Chiara Strozzi, 2010. "L'evoluzione delle leggi sulla cittadinanza: una prospettiva globale," Department of Economics 0626, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
  6. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Effect of Income and Immigration Policies on International Migration," NBER Working Papers 18322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2012. "The Role of Income and Immigration Policies in Attracting International Migrants," Working Papers 1214, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  8. Francesc Ortega & Giovanni Peri, 2009. "The Causes and Effects of International Migrations: Evidence from OECD Countries 1980-2005," NBER Working Papers 14833, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Marina Murat & Barbara Pistoresi, 2007. "Migrant networks: Empirical Implications for the Italian Bilateral Trade," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 003, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics.
  10. Gordon H. Hanson, 2009. "The Governance of Migration Policy," Human Development Research Papers (2009 to present) HDRP-2009-02, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), revised Apr 2009.
  11. Bertocchi, Graziella & Strozzi, Chiara, 2007. "The Age of Mass Migration: Economic and Institutional Determinants," CEPR Discussion Papers 6050, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Giuranno, Michele G. & Rongili, Biswas, 2012. "Inter-jurisdictional migration and the size of government," MPRA Paper 42604, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Tesfaye A. Gebremedhin & Astghik Mavisakalyan, 2013. "Immigration and Political Instability," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(3), pages 317-341, 08.
  14. Lena Calahorrano & Philipp an de Meulen, 2011. "Demographics and Factor Flows – A Political Economy Approach," Ruhr Economic Papers 0299, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  15. Russo, Giuseppe & Salsano, Francesco, 2012. "Electoral systems and immigration," MPRA Paper 38497, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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