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Citizenship laws and international migration in historical perspective

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  • Bertocchi, Graziella
  • Strozzi, Chiara

Abstract

We investigate the origin, impact and evolution of the legal institution of citizenship. We compile a dataset across countries of the world from the 19th century, which documents how citizenship laws have evolved from the common and civil law traditions. Contrary to the predictions of legal theory, we show that the original, exogenously-given citizenship laws did not matter for migration flows during the early, mass migrations period. After WWII, citizenship-granting institutions are no longer exogenous as they are shown to be determined by international migration flows, border stability, the establishment of democracy, the welfare burden, cultural factors, and colonial history. -- Wir untersuchen die Entstehung, die Bedeutung und die Entwicklung des Staatsbürgerschaftsrechtes. Es wird ein Datensatz von Ländern zur Zeit des 19. Jahrhunderts zusammengestellt, der dokumentiert, wie Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetze aus gewohnheits- und zivilrechtlichen Traditionen entstanden sind. Entgegen den Voraussagen der Rechtstheorie kommen wir zu dem Ergebnis, dass die ursprünglichen, exogen gegebenen Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetze keinen Einfluss auf die Migrationsströme der frühen Massenmigrationsperiode hatten. Seit dem zweiten Weltkrieg kann man die staatsbürgerschaftsrechtlichen Normen und Institutionen nicht mehr als gegeben betrachten. Vielmehr zeigt sich, dass sie durch internationale Migrationsbewegungen, die Stabilität von Grenzen, das Vorhandensein einer demokratischen Ordnung, die Belastung der Wohlfahrt, kulturelle Faktoren sowie die Kolonialgeschichte bestimmt werden.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Market Processes and Governance with number SP II 2004-18.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbmpg:spii200418

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Keywords: Citizenship laws; international migration; legal origins; democracy; borders;

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Cited by:
  1. Giovanni Facchini & Cecilia Testa, 2009. "Who Is Against a Common Market?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(5), pages 1068-1100, 09.
  2. Francesc Ortega, 2004. "Immigration and the survival of the welfare state," Economics Working Papers 815, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  3. Facchini, Giovanni & Mayda, Anna Maria, 2008. "From Individual Attitudes towards Migrants to Migration Policy Outcomes: Theory and Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 3512, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Gligorov, Vladimir, 2009. "Mobility and Transition in Integrating Europe," MPRA Paper 19198, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Bertocchi, Graziella, 2004. "Growth, History and Institutions," CEPR Discussion Papers 4738, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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