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Environmental Tax Reform in a Small Open Economy with Structural Unemployment

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  • Holmlund, Bertil

    ()
    (Department of Economics)

  • Kolm, Ann-Sofie

    ()
    (Department of Economics)

Abstract

The paper examines the effects of an environmental tax reform in a model of a small open economy with decentralised wage bargaining and monopolistically competitive firms. The economy includes a tradable sector as well as a non-tradable sector and features unemployment in general equilibrium. Firms in both sectors use labour and an imported polluting factor of production (”energy”). A tax on energy, recycled to reduce the payroll tax, will in general affect equilibrium unemployment in this economy. The effect works through a reallocation of employment from the tradable to the non-tradable sector. Total employment increases if workers in the tradable sector receive a wage premium relative to workers in the non-tradable sector. The sectoral relative wage is determined by the relative bargaining power of the unions and by parameters of preferences and technology. Parameterised versions of the model suggest that the tax reform has small effects on employment and that it typically reduces real GDP.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Uppsala University, Department of Economics in its series Working Paper Series with number 1997:2.

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Length: 30 pages
Date of creation: 27 Aug 1998
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in International Tax and Public Finance, 2000, pages 315-333.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:uunewp:1997_002

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Postal: Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
Phone: + 46 18 471 25 00
Fax: + 46 18 471 14 78
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Web page: http://www.nek.uu.se/
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Keywords: Environmental tax reform; wage bargaining; equilibrium unemployment;

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References

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  1. Bovenberg, A Lans & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1998. " Tax Reform, Structural Unemployment and the Environment," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 100(3), pages 593-610, September.
  2. Bovenberg, A.L. & Ploeg, F. van der, 1993. "Optimal taxation, public goods and environmental policy with involuntary unemployment," Discussion Paper 1993-77, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  3. Holmlund, Bertil, 1997. "Macroeconomic Implications of Cash Limits in the Public Sector," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(253), pages 49-62, February.
  4. Richard Jackman & Richard Layard & Stephen J Nickell, 1996. "Combating unemployment: is flexibility enough?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2214, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Lawrence Goulder, 1995. "Environmental taxation and the double dividend: A reader's guide," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 157-183, August.
  6. Jonathan Gruber, 1995. "The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile," NBER Working Papers 5053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Strand, J., 1996. "Pollution Taxation and Revenue Recycling Under Monopoly Unions," Memorandum 16/1996, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  8. Johnson, G.E. & Layard, P.R.G., 1987. "The natural rate of unemployment: Explanation and policy," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 16, pages 921-999 Elsevier.
  9. Erkki Koskela & Ronnie Schöb & Hans-Werner Sinn, 1998. "Pollution, Factor Taxation and Unemployment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 379-396, July.
  10. Layard, Richard & Nickell, Stephen & Jackman, Richard, 1991. "Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198284345, September.
  11. Carraro, Carlo & Galeotti, Marzio & Gallo, Massimo, 1996. "Environmental taxation and unemployment: Some evidence on the 'double dividend hypothesis' in Europe," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1-2), pages 141-181, October.
  12. Pissarides, Christopher A., 1998. "The impact of employment tax cuts on unemployment and wages; The role of unemployment benefits and tax structure," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 155-183, January.
  13. Kolm, Ann-Sofie, 1998. "Differentiated payroll taxes, unemployment, and welfare," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 255-271, November.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bas Jacobs & Ruud A. de Mooij, 2011. "Pigou Meets Mirrlees: On the Irrelevance of Tax Distortions for the Second-Best Pigouvian Tax," CESifo Working Paper Series 3342, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Ronnie Schöb, 2003. "The Double Dividend Hypothesis of Environmental Taxes: A Survey," CESifo Working Paper Series 946, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Antonio Manresa & Ferran Sancho, 2002. "Implementing a Double Dividend: Recycling Ecotaxes Towards Lower Labour Taxes," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 536.02, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
  4. DE BORGER, Bruno, . "Commuting, congestion tolls and noncompetitive labour markets: Optimal congestion pricing in a wage bargaining model," Working Papers 2006014, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
  5. Patuelli, Roberto & Nijkamp, Peter & Pels, Eric, 2005. "Environmental tax reform and the double dividend: A meta-analytical performance assessment," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 564-583, December.
  6. Wolfram Richter & Kerstin Schneider, 2001. "Taxing Mobile Capital with Labor Market Imperfections," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 245-262, May.
  7. Koskela, Erkki & Schöb, Ronnie & Sinn, Hans-Werner, 1998. "Pollution, Factor Taxation and Unemployment," Munich Reprints in Economics 19493, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  8. Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline, 2001. "Le double dividende: Les approches theoriques," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00089916, HAL.
  9. Bertil Holmlund, 2002. "International spillover effects of sectoral tax differentiation in unionized economies," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(2), pages 207-229, April.
  10. Holmlund, B. & Kolm, A.-S., 1999. "Economic Integration, Imperfect Competition, and International Policy Coordination," Papers 1999:7, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
  11. Michael Rauscher, 2001. "International Factor Movements, Environmental Policy, and Double Dividends," NBER Chapters, in: Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy, pages 187-216 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Requate, Till, 2005. "Environmental Policy under Imperfect Competition : A Survey," Economics Working Papers 2005,12, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  13. De Borger, Bruno, 2009. "Commuting, congestion tolls and the structure of the labour market: Optimal congestion pricing in a wage bargaining model," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 434-448, July.
  14. Thorsten Bayındır-Upmann, 2004. "On the Double Dividend under Imperfect Competition," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 28(2), pages 169-194, June.

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