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Commuting, congestion tolls and the structure of the labour market: Optimal congestion pricing in a wage bargaining model

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  • De Borger, Bruno

Abstract

In this paper we study optimal congestion pricing in a wage bargaining model. We first show that, compared to a competitive labour market environment, wage bargaining may lead to substantially different optimal transport taxes. Second, bargaining implies that exogenous increases in congestion levels and in transport taxes raise negotiated wages and reduce employment levels; the strength of these effects depends on the union's attitude towards transport issues. Third, we show that the optimal uniform transport tax positively depends on the impact of congestion on negotiated wages, and negatively on the wage effects of the congestion tax itself. Using a standard specification for union preferences, the optimal transport tax exceeds the marginal external congestion cost to the extent that transport flows include demand by people who have no employment. Finally, if taxes can be differentiated according to trip purpose, the tax structure implies shifting the tax burden away from the employed.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Regional Science and Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 39 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 (July)
Pages: 434-448

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Handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:39:y:2009:i:4:p:434-448

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Keywords: Wage bargaining Congestion pricing Commuting;

References

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  1. Rainald Borck & Matthias Wrede, 2004. "Political Economy of Commuting Subsidies," CESifo Working Paper Series 1339, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Parry, Ian W.H. & Bento, Antonio Miguel R., 1999. "Revenue recycling and the welfare effects of road pricing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2253, The World Bank.
  3. Christopher Pissarides, 1997. "The impact of employment tax cuts on unemployment and wages : the role of unemployment benefits and tax structure," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2332, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  4. Schneider, Kerstin, 1997. " Involuntary Unemployment and Environmental Policy: The Double Dividend Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 99(1), pages 45-49, March.
  5. Erik T. Verhoef, 2004. "Second-best Congestion Pricing Schemes in the Monocentric City," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-110/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  6. A. Lans Bovenberg & Lawrence H. Goulder, 1994. "Optimal Environmental Taxation in the Presence of Other Taxes: General Equilibrium Analyses," NBER Working Papers 4897, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Kurt Van Dender, 2003. "Transport Taxes with Multiple Trip Purposes," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(2), pages 295-310, 06.
  8. Erkki Koskela & Ronnie Schöb & Hans-Werner Sinn, 1998. "Pollution, Factor Taxation and Unemployment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 379-396, July.
  9. Lockwood, Ben & Manning, Alan, 1993. "Wage setting and the tax system theory and evidence for the United Kingdom," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 1-29, August.
  10. Small, Kenneth & Yan, Jia, 2000. "The Value of "Value Pricing" of Roads: Second-Best Pricing and Product Differentiation," Discussion Papers dp-00-08, Resources For the Future.
  11. Bayindir-Upmann, Thorsten & Raith, Matthias G., 2003. "Should high-tax countries pursue revenue-neutral ecological tax reforms?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 41-60, February.
  12. Hart,Robert A., 2004. "The Economics of Overtime Working," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521801423, April.
  13. Safirova, Elena, 2002. "Telecommuting, traffic congestion, and agglomeration: a general equilibrium model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 26-52, July.
  14. Zhang, Xiaoning & Huang, Hai-Jun & Zhang, H.M., 2008. "Integrated daily commuting patterns and optimal road tolls and parking fees in a linear city," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 38-56, January.
  15. Richard Arnott & Tilmann Rave & Ronnie Schöb, 2005. "Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012197, December.
  16. Bertil Holmlund & Ann-Sofie Kolm, 2000. "Environmental Tax Reform in a Small Open Economy With Structural Unemployment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 315-333, May.
  17. Van Ommeren, Jos & Rietveld, Piet, 2005. "The commuting time paradox," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 437-454, November.
  18. Wrede, Matthias, 2001. "Should Commuting Expenses Be Tax Deductible? A Welfare Analysis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 80-99, January.
  19. Matthias Wrede, 2000. "Tax Deductibility of Commuting Expenses and Leisures: On the Tax Treatment of Time-Saving Expenditure," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 57(2), pages 216-, March.
  20. Sandmo, Agnar, 2000. "The Public Economics of the Environment," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198297987, September.
  21. Mayeres, Inge & Proost, Stef, 1997. " Optimal Tax and Public Investment Rules for Congestion Type of Externalities," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 99(2), pages 261-79, June.
  22. DE BORGER, Bruno, . "Commuting, congestion tolls and noncompetitive labour markets: Optimal congestion pricing in a wage bargaining model," Working Papers 2006014, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. McArthur, D.P. & Thorsen, I. & Ubøe, J., 2012. "Labour market effects in assessing the costs and benefits of road pricing," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 310-321.
  2. Ioannis Tikoudis & Erik T. Verhoef & Jos N. van Ommeren, 2013. "On Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Second-Best Congestion Pricing in a Monocentric City," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-031/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
  3. Börjesson, Maria & Kristoffersson, Ida, 2012. "Estimating welfare effects of congestion charges in real world settings," Working papers in Transport Economics 2012:13, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
  4. Zenou, Yves, 2010. "Search, Migration, and Urban Land Use: The Case of Transportation Policies," IZA Discussion Papers 5312, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Anderstig, Christer & Berglund, Svante & Eliasson, Jonas & Andersson, Matts & Pyddoke, Roger, 2012. "Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?," Working papers in Transport Economics 2012:4, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).

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