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Integrated daily commuting patterns and optimal road tolls and parking fees in a linear city


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  • Zhang, Xiaoning
  • Huang, Hai-Jun
  • Zhang, H.M.


For decades, the dynamic traffic patterns of morning and evening commutes have been investigated separately, and it is often assumed that they are simple mirror symmetries. In this paper, we use a two-stage differential method to establish a daily traffic pattern that links the morning and evening commutes as an integrated one. Based on a bi-direction bottleneck network with a spatial pattern of parking, we use analytical models to describe travelers' behavior in choosing departure times in their morning and evening trips, where a commuter's morning and evening decisions are joined by a parking location. Given fixed parking locations of commuters, we firstly derive the evening commute pattern, which is a Nash equilibrium in the sense that no one can reduce her/his travel cost given other commuters' decisions. Then the individual evening commute costs are allocated to different parking locations in modeling the morning commuting behavior, and the morning travel pattern is a user equilibrium in the sense that everyone has equal daily travel cost and no one can reduce private travel cost by unilaterally changing travel decisions. Then we propose a time-varying road toll regime to eliminate queuing delay and reduce schedule delay penalty. Furthermore, a time-varying road toll and location-dependent parking fee regime is developed to achieve a system optimum where the morning schedule delay cost is further reduced to the minimum by reversing the spatial order of parking. In view of the fact that road pricing is hard to implement, we propose a location-dependent parking fee regime with no road tolls to optimize the morning commute pattern, without improving the evening commute pattern.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part B: Methodological.

Volume (Year): 42 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Pages: 38-56

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Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:42:y:2008:i:1:p:38-56

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  1. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1995. "The economics of regulatory parking policies: The (IM)possibilities of parking policies in traffic regulation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 141-156, March.
  2. Arnott, Richard & Rowse, John, 1999. "Modeling Parking," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 97-124, January.
  3. Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola, 1993. "A stochastic user equilibrium assignment model for the evaluation of parking policies," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 269-287, December.
  4. Richard Arnott, 1990. "A Temporal and Spatial Equilibrium Analysis of Commuter Parking," Discussion Papers 884, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  5. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  6. Glazer, Amihai & Niskanen, Esko, 2001. "Parking fees and congestion," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9h51t02k, University of California Transportation Center.
  7. Zhang, Xiaoning & Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun & Zhang, H. Michael, 2005. "Integrated scheduling of daily work activities and morning-evening commutes with bottleneck congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 41-60, January.
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Cited by:
  1. Jos van Ommeren & Derk Wentink & Piet Rietveld, 2010. "Empirical Evidence on Cruising for Parking," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-028/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Zhang, Xiaoning & Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun, 2011. "Improving travel efficiency by parking permits distribution and trading," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1018-1034, August.
  3. Fosgerau, Mogens & Lindsey, Robin, 2013. "Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 764-782.
  4. Gonzales, Eric J. & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2013. "The evening commute with cars and transit: Duality results and user equilibrium for the combined morning and evening peaks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 286-299.
  5. Yang, Hai & Liu, Wei & Wang, Xiaolei & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2013. "On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-118.
  6. Richard J. Arnott, 2013. "On the Optimal Target Curbside Parking Occupancy Rate," CESifo Working Paper Series 4416, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Jiang, Yanqun & Wong, S.C. & Ho, H.W. & Zhang, Peng & Liu, Ruxun & Sumalee, Agachai, 2011. "A dynamic traffic assignment model for a continuum transportation system," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 343-363, February.
  8. Du, Jie & Wong, S.C. & Shu, Chi-Wang & Xiong, Tao & Zhang, Mengping & Choi, Keechoo, 2013. "Revisiting Jiang’s dynamic continuum model for urban cities," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 96-119.
  9. Coria, Jessica & Bonilla, Jorge & Grundström, Maria & Pleijel, Håkan, 2013. "Air Pollution Dynamics and the Need for Temporally Differentiated Road Pricing," Working Papers in Economics 572, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  10. De Borger, Bruno, 2009. "Commuting, congestion tolls and the structure of the labour market: Optimal congestion pricing in a wage bargaining model," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 434-448, July.


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