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Real shocks and real exchange rates in really long-term data

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  • John H. Rogers

Abstract

There is little consensus concerning the sources of fluctuations in real exchange rates. In this paper I assess the nature of the shocks that drive the real U.S. dollar-U.K. pound exchange rate, analyzing 130 years of data. I first show that wars, which are examples of a (transitory) real shock, are significant. I next use an alternative empirical approach, in which I identify various types of real and nominal shocks. I find that output shocks and monetary shocks account for approximately the same percentage of the variance of the real exchange rate over short horizons. The monetary shock is decomposed into monetary base and money multiplier shocks and the output shock is decomposed into supply and demand shocks. Essentially all of the effect of the combined output shock is due to the demand shock. The effect of the monetary shock is accounted for by both money multiplier shocks and monetary base shocks in roughly equal amounts. Thus, the paper suggests that the contributions of real and monetary shocks are roughly equal overall, while shedding light on the nature of those shocks.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series International Finance Discussion Papers with number 493.

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Date of creation: 1995
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:493

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Keywords: Foreign exchange rates;

References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Mark, Nelson C. & Choi, Doo-Yull, 1997. "Real exchange-rate prediction over long horizons," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 29-60, August.
  2. Weber, Axel A., 1997. "Sources of Purchasing Power Disparities Between the G3-Economies," Discussion Paper Serie B 419, University of Bonn, Germany.
  3. Selahattin Dibooglu & Faik Koray, 2001. "The Behavior of the Real Exchange Rate Under Fixed and Floating Exchange Rate Regimes," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 123-143, April.
  4. John T. Cuddington & Hong Liang, 1998. "Commodity Price Volatility Across Exchange Rate Regimes," International Finance 9802003, EconWPA, revised 11 May 1998.
  5. Lee,J. & Chinn,M.D., 2004. "Current account and real exchange rate dynamics in the G-7 countries," Working papers 11, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  6. Jaanus Raim, 2004. "The Alternative to the Existing System of the Concepts about Purchasing Power Parity Deviations . Derived from the Estonian Experience," Working Papers 115, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology.
  7. Rogers, John H., 1999. "Monetary shocks and real exchange rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 269-288, December.
  8. Amalia Morales Zumaquero & Simón Sosvilla Rivero, 2005. "Structural Breaks in Volatility: Evidence for the OECD Real Exchange Rates," Economic Working Papers at Centro de Estudios Andaluces E2005/01, Centro de Estudios Andaluces.
  9. Engel, Charles, 2000. "Long-run PPP may not hold after all," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 243-273, August.
  10. Mark S Astley & Anthony Garratt, 1998. "Exchange rates and prices: sources of sterling real exchange rate fluctuations 1973-94," Bank of England working papers 85, Bank of England.
  11. Chinn, Menzie David, 1997. "Paper pushers or paper money? Empirical assessment of fiscal and monetary models of exchange rate determination," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 51-78, February.
  12. Kenneth Rogoff & Kenneth Froot & Michael Kim, 2001. "The Law ofone Price Over 700 Years," IMF Working Papers 01/174, International Monetary Fund.
  13. Morales-Zumaquero, Amalia & Sosvilla-Rivero, Simon, 2010. "Structural breaks in volatility: Evidence for the OECD and non-OECD real exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 139-168, February.
  14. Menzie Chinn, 1995. "Whither the Yen? Implications of an intertemporal model of the Yen/Dollar rate," International Finance 9508001, EconWPA, revised 28 Aug 1995.
  15. Chinn, Menzie David, 1997. "Whither the Yen? Implications of an Intertemporal Model of the Dollar/Yen Rate," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 228-246, June.

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