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La formation qualifiante et transférable en milieu de travail

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  • Yanick Labrie
  • Claude Montmarquette

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Abstract

Comment définir une formation qualifiante et transférable? Comment favoriser et obtenir une telle formation en milieu de travail? Qui doit payer pour cette formation? Pourquoi certaines entreprises offrent une formation structurée à leurs employés contrairement à d’autres? Qui reçoit cette formation? Pourquoi plusieurs employés refusent la formation offerte par leur employeur? Pourquoi certaines économies ont senti le besoin de légiférer sur cette question en instaurant une obligation financière de formation et d’autres ne l’ont pas fait? Pour répondre à ces questions et à plusieurs autres questions connexes, nous avons répertorié et analysé plus de 140 travaux provenant essentiellement des écrits des économistes sur le sujet. Notre étude rapporte plusieurs éléments de réponse à ces questions et discute plusieurs autres dimensions connexes aux déterminants de la formation en entreprise (impacts de la formation, incitatifs et barrières à la formation, les politiques publiques en matière de formation). Il est possible cependant que certaines réponses demeurent insatisfaisantes aux yeux de la Commission des Partenaires du marché du travail. C’est notamment ce que nous appréhendons au sujet de la définition d’une formation qualifiante et transférable. Chez les économistes, ces termes ne sont pas comme tels retenus. Ce sont les concepts de formation générale et de formation spécifique qui sont discutés amplement dans la littérature économique. Par formation générale, on entend chez les économistes une formation qui a de la valeur autant au sein de l’entreprise qui choisit de l’offrir à ses employés qu’au sein d’entreprises extérieures. À cet égard, il est reconnu que ce type de formation est pleinement transférable. Par contraste, la formation spécifique n’est utile qu’au sein de l’entreprise qui choisit de l’offrir à ses employés. Ce type de formation n’est donc aucunement transférable. Récemment, on a proposé l’idée que toutes les compétences acquises en cours de formation seraient de nature générale, mais que la combinaison de ces compétences générales serait de nature spécifique à l’entreprise. En ce qui concerne la formation qualifiante, elle peut être définie comme un processus par lequel l’individu développe les compétences nécessaires à l’exercice d’une fonction ou d’un métier sur le marché du travail. Or, ce n’est qu’ex post que la formation est qualifiante, c’est-à-dire lorsqu’elle se traduit par une hausse de productivité, une hausse de salaire, ou une hausse de mobilité professionnelle. Par ailleurs, d’autres éléments ne sont pas de nature à simplifier la recherche d’un cadre opérationnel aux termes de la Loi portant sur la question de la formation « qualifiante » et « transférable ». Par exemple, une formation non qualifiante peut le devenir par l’innovation et il est aussi possible que dans certains cas un délai dans le temps soit nécessaire pour qu’une formation devienne qualifiante. Si plusieurs réponses demeurent incomplètes, il existe néanmoins un certain agrément sur plusieurs points et cela est grandement susceptible d’éclairer le débat entourant la promotion de la formation en entreprise. D’abord, la portée du sujet est indéniable : la question de la formation des travailleurs en entreprise est fondamentale dans un contexte de concurrence mondiale accrue. Cette situation est particulièrement importante pour le Québec avec son économie largement ouverte sur les marchés extérieurs. La formation en milieu de travail est un investissement en capital humain qui est un facteur majeur de la croissance économique et une condition garante d’une meilleure qualité de vie pour les individus. Il existe aussi un consensus à l’effet que la formation en entreprise soit d’abord et avant tout le privilège des travailleurs les plus habiles et les mieux éduqués à la base. Un autre constat bien évident est que plusieurs conditions semblent nécessaires pour favoriser la formation en milieu de travail, que ce soit, par exemple, l’abolition des contraintes institutionnelles ou la simple amélioration de la reconnaissance des acquis, alors qu’aucune n’est en soi suffisante. La Loi favorisant le développement de la formation de la main-d’œuvre, qui oblige toutes les entreprises d’une certaine taille à investir 1% de leur masse salariale dans la formation de la main-d’œuvre n’apparaît pas être une condition suffisante. S’il en était autrement, elle serait universelle et non l’exception dans les économies. Que cette loi soit une condition nécessaire au Québec est une autre question qui nous amène à nous interroger, comme nous l’avons fait dans ce travail, sur les déterminants fondamentaux de la formation en milieu de travail. À la base de ces déterminants, on retrouve la nécessité que la formation soit un investissement rentable autant pour l’individu que pour la firme qui l’embauche. Notre étude se termine en offrant quelques recommandations pour favoriser la formation en entreprise tout en suggérant diverses pistes pour des recherches futures.

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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Project Reports with number 2005rp-04.

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Date of creation: 01 Mar 2005
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2005rp-04

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