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Hypercongestion

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  • Small, Kenneth A.
  • Chu, Xuehao

Abstract

The standard economic model for analyzing traffic congestion, due to A.A. Walters, incorporates a relationship between speed and traffic flow. Empirical measurements indicate a region, known as hypercongestion, in which speed increases with flow. We argue that this relationship is unsuitable as a supply curve for equilibrium analysis because hypercongestion occurs as a response to transient demand fluctuations. We then present tractable models for handling such fluctuations, both for a uniform expressway and for a dense street network such as in a central business district (CBD). For the CBD model, we consider both exogenous and endogenous time patterns for demand, and we make use of an empirical speed-density relationship for Dallas, Texas to characterize both congested and hypercongested conditions.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt3nn3733q.

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Date of creation: 13 Dec 2000
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt3nn3733q

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Keywords: congestion; hypercongestion; externalities; peakload pricing; dynamic analysis; speed-flow curves; Social and Behavioral Sciences;

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References

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  1. De Vany, Arthur & Saving, Thomas R, 1980. "Competition and Highway Pricing for Stochastic Traffic," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 45-60, January.
  2. Fisk, Caroline, 1979. "More paradoxes in the equilibrium assignment problem," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 305-309, December.
  3. Edelson, Noel M, 1971. "Congestion Tolls Under Monopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 61(5), pages 873-82, December.
  4. Oakland, William H., 1972. "Congestion, public goods and welfare," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 1(3-4), pages 339-357, November.
  5. Arnott, Richard, 1990. "Signalized intersection queuing theory and central business district auto congestion," Economics Letters, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 197-201, June.
  6. De Meza, David & Gould, J R, 1987. "Free Access versus Private Property in a Resource: Income Distributions Compared," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1317-25, December.
  7. Small, Kenneth A, 1982. "The Scheduling of Consumer Activities: Work Trips," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 467-79, June.
  8. Richard Arnott & Andre de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 1985. "Economics of a Bottleneck," Working Papers, Queen's University, Department of Economics 636, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  9. Evans, Alan W, 1992. "Road Congestion: The Diagrammatic Analysis: Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(1), pages 211-17, February.
  10. Mun, Se-il, 1994. "Traffic jams and the congestion toll," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 365-375, October.
  11. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-79, March.
  12. Dewees, Donald N, 1979. "Estimating the Time Costs of Highway Congestion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(6), pages 1499-1512, November.
  13. McDonald, John F. & d'Ouville, Edmond L., 1988. "Highway traffic flow and the uneconomic region of production," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 503-509, November.
  14. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  15. Berglas, Eitan & Pines, David, 1981. "Clubs, local public goods and transportation models : A synthesis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 141-162, April.
  16. Small, Kenneth A, 1992. "Trip Scheduling in Urban Transportation Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 482-86, May.
  17. Mills, David E, 1981. "Ownership Arrangements and Congestion-Prone Facilities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 493-502, June.
  18. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
  19. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1981. "The economics of staggered work hours," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 349-364, May.
  20. Kai Nagel & Steen Rasmussen, 1994. "Traffic at the Edge of Chaos," Working Papers, Santa Fe Institute 94-06-032, Santa Fe Institute.
  21. Arnott, Richard, 1979. "Optimal city size in a spatial economy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 65-89, January.
  22. Mohring, Herbert, 1970. "The Peak Load Problem with Increasing Returns and Pricing Constraints," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 60(4), pages 693-705, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Richard Arnott & Eren Inci, 2008. "The Stability Of Downtown Parking And Traffic Congestion," Working Papers, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics 200813, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2008.
  2. Richard Arnott, 1997. "Congestion Tolling and Urban Spatial Structure," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 389., Boston College Department of Economics.
  3. Ian W.H. Parry, 2009. "Pricing Urban Congestion," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 461-484, 09.
  4. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 1999. "Congestion Modelling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 99-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.

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