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The Stability Of Downtown Parking And Traffic Congestion

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Author Info

  • Richard Arnott

    ()
    (Department of Economics, University of California Riverside)

  • Eren Inci

    ()
    (Sabanci University)

Abstract

In classical traffic flow theory, there are two velocities associated with a given level of traffic flow. Following Vickrey, economists have termed travel at the higher speed congested travel and at the lower speed hypercongested travel. Since the publication of Waltersí classic paper (1961, Econometrica 29, 676- 699), there has been an on-going debate concerning whether a steady-state hypercongested equilibrium can be stable. For a particular structural model of downtown traffic flow and parking, this paper demonstrates that a steady- state hypercongested equilibrium can be stable. Some other sensible models of traffic congestion conclude that steady-state hypercongested travel cannot be stable, and that queues develop to ration the demand in steady states. Thus, we interpret our result to imply that, when steady-state demand is so high that it cannot be rationed through congested travel, the trip price increase necessary to ration the demand may be generated either through the forma- tion of steady-state queues or through hypercongested travel, and that which mechanism occurs depends on details of the traffic system.

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File URL: http://economics.ucr.edu/papers/papers08/08-13.pdf
File Function: First version, 2008
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 200813.

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Length: 39 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2008
Date of revision: Nov 2008
Handle: RePEc:ucr:wpaper:200813

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Postal: 4128 Sproul Hall, Riverside, CA 92521-0427
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Fax: (951) 827-5685
Web page: http://economics.ucr.edu
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Related research

Keywords: traffic congestion; cruising for parking; on-street parking; hyper-congestion;

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References

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  1. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Traffic Congestion and Congestion Pricing," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 00-101/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Richard Arnott & John Rowse, 2007. "Downtown Parking in Auto City," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 665, Boston College Department of Economics.
  3. Richard Arnott & Eren Inci, 2005. "An Integrated Model of Downtown Parking and Traffic Congestion," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 608, Boston College Department of Economics.
  4. Dewees, Donald N, 1979. "Estimating the Time Costs of Highway Congestion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(6), pages 1499-1512, November.
  5. Erik T. Verhoef, 2003. "Speed-Flow Relations and Cost Functions for Congested Traffic: Theory and Empirical Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 03-064/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 31 Oct 2003.
  6. Arnott, Richard & Rowse, John, 1999. "Modeling Parking," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 97-124, January.
  7. Verhoef, Erik T., 2001. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion Based on Simple Car-Following Theory: Exploring Hypercongestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 505-542, May.
  8. Small, K.A. & Chu, X., 1997. "Hypercongestion," Papers, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences 97-98-12, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
  9. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2008. "Existence of urban-scale macroscopic fundamental diagrams: Some experimental findings," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 759-770, November.
  10. Richard Arnott, 2005. "Spatial Competition between Parking Garages and Downtown Parking Policy," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 627, Boston College Department of Economics.
  11. Lo, Hong K. & Szeto, W.Y., 2005. "Road pricing modeling for hyper-congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 39(7-9), pages 705-722.
  12. Verhoef, Erik T., 2003. "Inside the queue:: hypercongestion and road pricing in a continuous time-continuous place model of traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 531-565, November.
  13. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2002. "A behavioral theory of multi-lane traffic flow. Part II: Merges and the onset of congestion," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 159-169, February.
  14. Erik Verhoef, 1997. "Time, Speeds, Flows and Densities in Static Models of Road Traffic Congestion and Congestion Pricing," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 97-070/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  15. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1981. "The economics of staggered work hours," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 349-364, May.
  16. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A., 1999. "Urban transportation," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier, in: P. C. Cheshire & E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 1937-1999 Elsevier.
  17. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
  18. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  19. Daganzo, C. F. & Cassidy, M. J. & Bertini, R. L., 1999. "Possible explanations of phase transitions in highway traffic," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 365-379, June.
  20. Erik T. Verhoef, 2002. "Inside the Queue," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers, Tinbergen Institute 02-062/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 27 May 2003.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Hasker, Kevin & Inci, Eren, 2012. "Free Parking for All in Shopping Malls," MPRA Paper 35978, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Yang, Hai & Liu, Wei & Wang, Xiaolei & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2013. "On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-118.
  3. Richard Arnott & Eren Inci & John Rowse, 2012. "Downtown Parking and Traffic Congestion: A Diagrammatic Exposition," ERSA conference papers ersa12p611, European Regional Science Association.
  4. Caicedo, Felix & Diaz, Alejandra, 2013. "Case analysis of simultaneous concessions of parking meters and underground parking facilities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 358-378.
  5. Zheng, Nan & Waraich, Rashid A. & Axhausen, Kay W. & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2012. "A dynamic cordon pricing scheme combining the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram and an agent-based traffic model," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1291-1303.
  6. Richard J. Arnott, 2013. "On the Optimal Target Curbside Parking Occupancy Rate," CESifo Working Paper Series 4416, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Richard J. Arnott & Eren Inci & John Rowse, 2013. "Downtown Curbside Parking Capacity," CESifo Working Paper Series 4085, CESifo Group Munich.
  8. Tsekeris, Theodore & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2013. "City size, network structure and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-14.
  9. Arnott, Richard, 2013. "A bathtub model of downtown traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 110-121.
  10. Zhang, Xiaoning & Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun, 2011. "Improving travel efficiency by parking permits distribution and trading," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1018-1034, August.
  11. Arnott, Richard, 2011. "A Bathtub Model of Traffic Congestion," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9zx130zz, University of California Transportation Center.

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