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Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing

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  • Verhoef, Erik T.

Abstract

This paper deals with some of the features of static models of road traffic congestion that have caused much debate in the literature. It first focuses on the difficulties arising with the backward-bending cost curve defined over traffic flows in the context of `continuous congestion'. The relevance of the backward-bending segment of this curve is questioned by demonstrating that the `equilibria' on this segment of the cost curve are dynamically infeasible. Next, the implications for static models of `peak congestion' are considered. In doing so, attention is paid also to the implicit assumptions, particularly on the nature of scheduling costs, that are necessary to render static models of peak congestion internally consistent. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the implications for dynamic models of peak congestion.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Regional Science and Urban Economics.

Volume (Year): 29 (1999)
Issue (Month): 3 (May)
Pages: 341-369

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Handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:29:y:1999:i:3:p:341-369

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References

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  1. Moshe Ben-Akiva & Andre de Palma & Pavlos Kanaroglou, 1984. "Dynamic Model of Peak Period Traffic Congestion with Elastic Arrival Rates," Working Papers, Queen's University, Department of Economics 588, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  2. Evans, Alan W, 1992. "Road Congestion: The Diagrammatic Analysis: Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(1), pages 211-17, February.
  3. Verhoef, Erik, 1995. "The demand curve under road pricing and the problem of political feasibility: A comment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 459-465, November.
  4. Richard Arnott & Andre de Palma & Robin Lindsey, 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Boston College Working Papers in Economics, Boston College Department of Economics 305., Boston College Department of Economics.
  5. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1981. "The economics of staggered work hours," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 349-364, May.
  6. Braid, Ralph M., 1989. "Uniform versus peak-load pricing of a bottleneck with elastic demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 320-327, November.
  7. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
  8. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A., 1999. "Urban transportation," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier, in: P. C. Cheshire & E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 1937-1999 Elsevier.
  9. Braid, Ralph M., 1996. "Peak-Load Pricing of a Transportation Route with an Unpriced Substitute," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 179-197, September.
  10. Mun, Se-il, 1994. "Traffic jams and the congestion toll," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 365-375, October.
  11. Lave, Charles, 1994. "The demand curve under road pricing and the problem of political feasibility," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 83-91, March.
  12. Verhoef Erik T., 1997. "Externalities," Serie Research Memoranda 0031, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  13. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
  14. Verhoef, Erik T. & Emmerink, Richard H. M. & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Information provision, flat and fine congestion tolling and the efficiency of road usage," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 505-529, August.
  15. Erik T. Verhoef, 1998. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion based on Simple Car-Following Theory," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  16. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ilbanez, Jose A., 1998. "Road Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8kk909p1, University of California Transportation Center.
  17. De Meza, David & Gould, J R, 1987. "Free Access versus Private Property in a Resource: Income Distributions Compared," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1317-25, December.
  18. Lave, Charles, 1994. "The Demand Curve Under Road Pricing and the Problem of Political Feasibility," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5165m7jr, University of California Transportation Center.
  19. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing: The Case of an Untolled Alternative," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 279-302, November.
  20. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-79, March.
  21. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Erik T. Verhoef, 1998. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion based on Simple Car-Following Theory," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  2. Erik T. Verhoef & Jan Rouwendal, 2001. "A Structural Model of Traffic Congestion," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-026/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 17 Oct 2003.
  3. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Networks - Algorithms for Finding Second-Best Optimal Toll Levels and Toll Points," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-084/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  4. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00467888 is not listed on IDEAS
  5. Cameron Hepburn, 2006. "Regulation by Prices, Quantities, or Both: A Review of Instrument Choice," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 226-247, Summer.
  6. Verhoef, Erik T., 2003. "Inside the queue:: hypercongestion and road pricing in a continuous time-continuous place model of traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 531-565, November.
  7. Arnott, Richard & Inci, Eren, 2008. "The Stability of Downtown Parking and Traffic Congestion," MPRA Paper 11786, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Verhoef, Erik T. & Rouwendal, Jan, 2004. "A behavioural model of traffic congestion: Endogenizing speed choice, traffic safety and time losses," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 408-434, November.
  9. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Static Transportation Networks with Elastic Demands," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-078/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  10. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Networks - Algorithms for Finding Second-Best Optimal Toll Levels and Toll Points," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-084/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  11. Verhoef, Erik T., 2002. "Second-best congestion pricing in general static transportation networks with elastic demands," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 281-310, May.
  12. Verhoef, Erik T., 2001. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion Based on Simple Car-Following Theory: Exploring Hypercongestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 505-542, May.
  13. Liu, Ronghui & May, Tony & Shepherd, Simon, 2011. "On the fundamental diagram and supply curves for congested urban networks," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 951-965, November.
  14. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 1999. "Congestion Modelling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  15. Arnott, Richard, 2013. "A bathtub model of downtown traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 110-121.
  16. Tsekeris, Theodore & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2013. "City size, network structure and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-14.
  17. Verhoef, Erik Teodoor, 2000. "The Generalized Second-Best Network Congestion Pricing Problem," ERSA conference papers ersa00p336, European Regional Science Association.
  18. repec:dgr:uvatin:2099091 is not listed on IDEAS

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