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The Stability of Downtown Parking and Traffic Congestion

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  • Richard J. Arnott
  • Eren Inci

Abstract

In classical traffic flow theory, there are two velocities associated with a given level of traffic flow. Following Vickrey, economists have termed travel at the higher speed congested travel and at the lower speed hypercongested travel. Since the publication of Walters. classic paper, there has been an on-going debate concerning whether a steady-state hypercongested equilibrium can be stable. For a particular structural model of downtown traffic flow and parking, this paper demonstrates that a steady-state hypercongested equilibrium can be stable. Some other sensible models of traffic congestion conclude that steady-state hypercongested travel cannot be stable, and that queues develop to ration the demand in steady states. Thus, we interpret our result to imply that, when steady-state demand is so high that it cannot be rationed through congested travel, the trip price increase necessary to ration the demand may be generated either through the formation of steady-state queues or through hypercongested travel, and that which mechanism occurs depends on details of the traffic system.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2525.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2525

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Keywords: traffic congestion; cruising for parking; on-street parking; hypercongestion;

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References

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  1. Erik Teodoor Verhoef, 1998. "Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing," ERSA conference papers ersa98p156, European Regional Science Association.
  2. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
  3. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  4. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2002. "A behavioral theory of multi-lane traffic flow. Part II: Merges and the onset of congestion," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 159-169, February.
  5. Arnott, Richard & Rowse, John, 2009. "Downtown parking in auto city," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-14, January.
  6. Erik T. Verhoef, 2003. "Speed-Flow Relations and Cost Functions for Congested Traffic: Theory and Empirical Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-064/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 31 Oct 2003.
  7. Lo, Hong K. & Szeto, W.Y., 2005. "Road pricing modeling for hyper-congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(7-9), pages 705-722.
  8. Richard Arnott & Eren Inci, 2005. "An Integrated Model of Downtown Parking and Traffic Congestion," NBER Working Papers 11118, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1981. "The economics of staggered work hours," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 349-364, May.
  10. Richard Arnott, 2005. "Spatial Competition between Parking Garages and Downtown Parking Policy," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 627, Boston College Department of Economics.
  11. Arnott, Richard & Rowse, John, 1999. "Modeling Parking," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 97-124, January.
  12. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Traffic Congestion and Congestion Pricing," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-101/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  13. Verhoef, Erik T., 2003. "Inside the queue:: hypercongestion and road pricing in a continuous time-continuous place model of traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 531-565, November.
  14. Dewees, Donald N, 1979. "Estimating the Time Costs of Highway Congestion," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(6), pages 1499-1512, November.
  15. Geroliminis, Nikolas & Daganzo, Carlos F., 2008. "Existence of urban-scale macroscopic fundamental diagrams: Some experimental findings," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 759-770, November.
  16. Verhoef, Erik T., 2001. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion Based on Simple Car-Following Theory: Exploring Hypercongestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 505-542, May.
  17. Small, K.A. & Chu, X., 1997. "Hypercongestion," Papers 97-98-12, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
  18. Daganzo, C. F. & Cassidy, M. J. & Bertini, R. L., 1999. "Possible explanations of phase transitions in highway traffic," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 365-379, June.
  19. Erik T. Verhoef, 2002. "Inside the Queue," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-062/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 27 May 2003.
  20. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A., 1999. "Urban transportation," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: P. C. Cheshire & E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 46, pages 1937-1999 Elsevier.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Caicedo, Felix & Diaz, Alejandra, 2013. "Case analysis of simultaneous concessions of parking meters and underground parking facilities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 358-378.
  2. Zhang, Xiaoning & Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun, 2011. "Improving travel efficiency by parking permits distribution and trading," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 1018-1034, August.
  3. Arnott, Richard, 2013. "A bathtub model of downtown traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 110-121.
  4. Tsekeris, Theodore & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2013. "City size, network structure and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-14.
  5. Richard J. Arnott & Eren Inci & John Rowse, 2013. "Downtown Curbside Parking Capacity," CESifo Working Paper Series 4085, CESifo Group Munich.
  6. Richard J. Arnott, 2013. "On the Optimal Target Curbside Parking Occupancy Rate," CESifo Working Paper Series 4416, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Hasker, Kevin & Inci, Eren, 2012. "Free Parking for All in Shopping Malls," MPRA Paper 35978, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  8. Yang, Hai & Liu, Wei & Wang, Xiaolei & Zhang, Xiaoning, 2013. "On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-118.
  9. Arnott, Richard & Inci, Eren & Rowse, John, 2011. "Downtown Parking and Traffic Congestion: A Diagrammatic Exposition," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4sb0975r, University of California Transportation Center.
  10. Arnott, Richard, 2011. "A Bathtub Model of Traffic Congestion," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9zx130zz, University of California Transportation Center.
  11. Zheng, Nan & Waraich, Rashid A. & Axhausen, Kay W. & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2012. "A dynamic cordon pricing scheme combining the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram and an agent-based traffic model," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1291-1303.

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