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What does really discipline fiscal policy in emerging markets? The role and dynamics of exchange rate regimes

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  • Enrique Alberola

    ()
    (Banco de España)

  • Luis Molina

    ()
    (Banco de España)

Abstract

Fixing the exchange rate stabilises inflation and reduces monetary seignoriage, a key source of financing under the fiscal dominance hypothesis. However, the link between fixed exchange rate regimes and fiscal discipline in emerging markets has been found to be weak. This paper thoroughly reviews the issue through three venues. First, an alternative measure to gauge fiscal discipline –the so called shadow balance, inclusive of seignoriage revenues– is proposed, since the traditional one, the primary balance, does not convey monetary financing; notwithstanding this modification, no robust relation is found either. Second, we sustain and then prove the hypothesis that fixing the exchange rate may have offsetting effects on fiscal discipline through the relaxation of the fiscal constraint of the government. In particular fixing the exchange rate is expected to reduce the cost and burden of debt and to enhance the ability to obtain revenues through a higher level of activity. The empirical test of this hypothesis follows a two stage approach. First, we test the impact of the fiscal constraints on discipline: as advocated, a higher fiscal burden induces higher discipline; higher activity does not clearly relax discipline, although expenditures grow and the burden of debt is shown to diminish. The second stage tests the impact of fixed regime on the considered determinants. Again, the relation between fixed regimes and the reduction of the burden is robust, but not so the impact of fixed regimes on the cycle. Third, we explore the dynamics related to the pegging of the exchange rate, uncovering that at its inception exchange rates trigger an expansion and reduce the debt burden. This final outcome does not only strengthen our hypothesis but illustrates how the peg sows the seeds of its own destruction, also at the fiscal level.

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File URL: http://www.bde.es/f/webbde/SES/Secciones/Publicaciones/PublicacionesSeriadas/DocumentosTrabajo/04/Fic/dt0402e.pdf
File Function: First version, January 2004
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Paper provided by Banco de Espa�a in its series Banco de Espa�a Working Papers with number 0402.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2004
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Handle: RePEc:bde:wpaper:0402

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  1. By A. Javier Hamann, 2001. "Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization: A Critical Look at the Stylized Facts," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(1), pages 4.
  2. Reinhart, Carmen & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2004. "The modern history of exchange rate arrangements: A reinterpretation," MPRA Paper 14070, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
  4. A. Javier Hamann, 1999. "Exchange-Rate-Based Stabilization," IMF Working Papers 99/132, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Levy-Yeyati, Eduardo & Sturzenegger, Federico, 2005. "Classifying exchange rate regimes: Deeds vs. words," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 1603-1635, August.
  6. Calvo, Guillermo A. & Vegh, Carlos A., 1999. "Inflation stabilization and bop crises in developing countries," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 24, pages 1531-1614 Elsevier.
  7. Thomas J. Sargent & Neil Wallace, 1981. "Some unpleasant monetarist arithmetic," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall.
  8. Michael Gavin & Roberto Perotti, 1997. "Fiscal Policy in Latin America," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1997, Volume 12, pages 11-72 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Carlos A. Végh, 1992. "Stopping High Inflation: An Analytical Overview," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 626-695, September.
  10. Tornell, Aaron & Velasco, Andres, 1998. "Fiscal discipline and the choice of a nominal anchor in stabilization," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-30, October.
  11. Edwards, Sebastian & Tabellini, Guido, 1991. "Explaining fiscal policies and inflation in developing countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1, Supple), pages S16-S48, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Francisco J. Ledesma-Rodríguez & Manuel Navarro-Ibáñez & Jorge V. Pérez-Rodríguez & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero, . "Regímenes cambiarios de iure y de facto. El caso de la Peseta/Dólar, 1965-1998," Working Papers on International Economics and Finance 05-03, FEDEA.
  2. Adela Luque, 2005. "Skill mix and technology in Spain: evidence from firm level data," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0513, Banco de Espa�a.
  3. Enrique Alberola & José M. Montero, 2006. "Debt sustainability and procyclical fical policies in Latin America," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0611, Banco de Espa�a.
  4. El-Shagi, Makram, 2009. "The impact of fixed exchange rates on fiscal discipline," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 84, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  5. Francisco Ledesma-Rodríguez & Manuel Navarro-Ibáñez & Jorge Pérez-Rodríguez & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero, . "Regímenes cambiarios de facto y de iure. Una aplicación al tipo de cambio yen/dólar," Working Papers 2004-10, FEDEA.
  6. El-Shagi, Makram, 2009. "The impact of fixed exchange rates on fiscal discipline," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 84, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  7. Francisco Ledesma-Rodríguez & Manuel Navarro-Ibáñezr & Jorge Pérez-Rodríguez & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero, . "Implicit regimes for the Spanish Peseta/Deutschmark exchange rate," Working Papers 2005-21, FEDEA.
  8. Guillermo Vuletin, 2013. "Exchange Rate Regimes And Fiscal Discipline: The Role Of Capital Controls," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(4), pages 2096-2109, October.
  9. Rupa Duttagupta & Guillermo Tolosa, 2006. "Fiscal Discipline and Exchange Rate Regimes," IMF Working Papers 06/119, International Monetary Fund.

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