Leading indicators of currency crises
AbstractThe authors examine the empirical evidence on currency crises and propose a specific early-warning system. This system involves monitoring the evolution of several indicators that tend to exhibit unusual behavior in the periods preceding a crisis. An indicator exceeding a certain threshold value should be interpreted as a warning"signal"that a currency crisis may take place within the following 24 months. The threshold values are calculated to strike a balance between the risk of having many false signals and the risk of missing many crises. Within this approach, the variables with the best track record include exports, deviations of the real exchange rate from trend, the ratio of broad money to gross international reserves, output, and equity prices. The evidence does not support some of the other indicators that were considered, including imports, bank deposits,the difference between foreign and domestic real deposit interest rates, and the ratio of lending to deposit interest rates.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1852.
Date of creation: 30 Nov 1997
Date of revision:
Payment Systems&Infrastructure; Economic Theory&Research; Fiscal&Monetary Policy; Environmental Economics&Policies; Labor Policies; Economic Theory&Research; Macroeconomic Management; Economic Stabilization; Environmental Economics&Policies; Financial Economics;
Other versions of this item:
- F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
- F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
- E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 1996.
"Currency crashes in emerging markets: an empirical treatment,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
534, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1996. "Currency crashes in emerging markets: An empirical treatment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-4), pages 351-366, November.
- Ceyla Pazarbasioglu & Inci Ã–tker, 1994. "Exchange Market Pressures and Speculative Capital Flows in Selected European Countries," IMF Working Papers 94/21, International Monetary Fund.
- Guillermo A. Calvo, 1995.
"Varieties of Capital-Market Crises,"
Research Department Publications
4008, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Edin, Per-Anders & Vredin, Anders, 1993.
"Devaluation Risk in Target Zones: Evidence from the Nordic Countries,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 103(416), pages 161-75, January.
- Edin, P.A. & Vredin, A., 1991. "Devaluation Risk in Target Zones: Evidence from the Nordic Countries," Papers 1991g, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Gerlach, Stefan & Smets, Frank, 1995.
"Contagious speculative attacks,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 45-63, March.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Sara Calvo, 1996.
"Capital Flows to Latin America: Is There Evidence of Contagion Effects?,"
Peterson Institute Press: Chapters,
in: Guillermo A. Calvo & Morris Goldstein & Eduard Hochreiter (ed.), Private Capital Flows to Emerging Markets After the Mexican Crisis, pages 151-171
Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Sara, 1996. "Capital Flows to Latin America: Is There Evidence of Contagion Effects?”," MPRA Paper 7124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Calvo, Sara & Reinhart, Carmen, 1996. "Capital flows to Latin America : Is there evidence of contagion effects?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1619, The World Bank.
- Blanco, Herminio & Garber, Peter M, 1986. "Recurrent Devaluation and Speculative Attacks on the Mexican Peso," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(1), pages 148-66, February.
- Obstfeld, Maurice, 1986.
"Rational and Self-fulfilling Balance-of-Payments Crises,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 72-81, March.
- Maurice Obstfeld, 1984. "Rational and Self-Fulfilling Balance-of-Payments Crises," NBER Working Papers 1486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Pierre-Richard AgÃ©nor & Jagdeep S. Bhandari & Robert P. Flood, 1992. "Speculative Attacks and Models of Balance of Payments Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(2), pages 357-394, June.
- Rudger Dornbusch & Ilan Goldfajn & Rodrigo O. Valdés, 1995. "Currency Crises and Collapses," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 219-294.
- Dellas, H. & Stockman, A.C., 1988.
"Self-Fullfilling Expectations, Speculative Attacks And Capital Controls,"
RCER Working Papers
138, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Dellas, Harris & Stockman, Alan, 1993. "Self-Fulfilling Expectations, Speculative Attack, and Capital Controls," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(4), pages 721-30, November.
- Pierre-Richard Agenor & Jagdeep S. Bhandari & Robert P. Flood, 1991.
"Speculative Attacks and Models of Balance-of-Payments Crises,"
NBER Working Papers
3919, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert P. Flood & Jagdeep S. Bhandari & Pierre-Richard AgÃ©nor, 1991. "Speculative Attacks and Models of Balance of Payments Crises," IMF Working Papers 91/99, International Monetary Fund.
- Peter M. Garber & Lars E.O. Svensson, 1994.
"The Operation and Collapse of Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes,"
NBER Working Papers
4971, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Garber, Peter M. & Svensson, Lars E.O., 1995. "The operation and collapse of fixed exchange rate regimes," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 36, pages 1865-1911 Elsevier.
- Garber, P.M. & Svensson, L.E.O., 1994. "The Operation and Collapse of Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes," Papers 588, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
- Klein, Michael W. & Marion, Nancy P., 1997.
"Explaining the duration of exchange-rate pegs,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 387-404, December.
- Ozkan, F Gulcin & Sutherland, Alan, 1995. "Policy Measures to Avoid a Currency Crisis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 510-19, March.
- Kamin, S.B., 1988. "Devaluation, External Balance, And Macroeconomic Performance: A Look At The Numbers," Princeton Studies in International Economics 62, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
- Blackburn, Keith & Sola, Martin, 1993. " Speculative Currency Attacks and Balance of Payments Crises," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(2), pages 119-44, June.
- Flood, Robert & Marion, Nancy, 1997. "The size and timing of devaluations in capital-controlled economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 123-147, October.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statisticsgeneral information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.