Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: evidence from Swedish register data
AbstractIn this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay males are at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of which earnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when we compare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, the disadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however, earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earnings advantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documented regardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing better than female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate that gay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians is likely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work than heterosexual females do. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Springer in its journal Review of Economics of the Household.
Volume (Year): 11 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=109451
Sexual orientation; Earnings differentials; Annual earnings; Full-time earnings; J15; J71;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
- J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Plug, Erik & Berkhout, Peter, 2001.
"Effects of Sexual Preferences on Earnings in the Netherlands,"
IZA Discussion Papers
344, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Erik Plug & Peter Berkhout, 2004. "Effects of sexual preferences on earnings in the Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 117-131, February.
- Christopher Carpenter, 2004. "New Evidence on Gay and Lesbian Household Incomes," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 22(1), pages 78-94, 01.
- Ali M Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Sexual orientation and occupational rank," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2422-2433.
- Ali Ahmed & Mats Hammarstedt, 2010. "Sexual orientation and earnings: a register data-based approach to identify homosexuals," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 835-849, June.
- Zavodny, Madeline, 2007.
"Is There a ‘Marriage Premium’ for Gay Men?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3192, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Nick Drydakis, 2011. "Women's Sexual Orientation and Labor Market Outcomes in Greece," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 89-117.
- Zweimuller, Jopsef & Winter- Ebmer, Rudolf, 1993.
"Gender Wage Differentials in Private and Public Sector Jobs,"
Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series
qt7ps0140j, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
- Zweimuller, J & Winter-Ebmer, R, 1994. "Gender Wage Differentials in Private and Public Sector Jobs," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 271-85, July.
- Christopher S. Carpenter, 2005. "Self-reported sexual orientation and earnings: Evidence from California," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(2), pages 258-273, January.
- Weichselbaumer, Doris, 2003.
"Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring,"
Elsevier, vol. 10(6), pages 629-642, December.
- Doris Weichselbaumer, 2003. "Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring," Natural Field Experiments 00340, The Field Experiments Website.
- Doris Weichselbaumer, 2000. "Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring," Economics working papers 2000-21, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Gregory B. Lewis, 1996. "Gender integration of occupations in the federal civil service: Extent and effects on male-female earnings," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(3), pages 472-483, April.
- Sonia Oreffice, 2009.
"Sexual orientation and household decision making. Same-sex couples' balance of power and labor supply choices,"
Working Papers. Serie AD
2009-08, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Oreffice, Sonia, 2011. "Sexual orientation and household decision making.: Same-sex couples' balance of power and labor supply choices," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 145-158, April.
- Sonia Oreffice, 2008. "Sexual Orientation and Household Decision Making. Same-Sex Couples’ Balance of Power and Labor Supply Choices," Working Papers 2008.81, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Ali M. Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Inter‐ and Intra‐Household Earnings Differentials among Homosexual and Heterosexual Couples," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 49(Supplemen), pages s258-s278, 07.
- Dan A. Black & Seth G. Sanders & Lowell J. Taylor, 2007. "The Economics of Lesbian and Gay Families," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 53-70, Spring.
- Drydakis, Nick, 2009. "Sexual orientation discrimination in the labour market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 364-372, August.
- Lisa Jepsen & Christopher Jepsen, 2002. "An empirical analysis of the matching patterns of same-sex and opposite-sex couples," Demography, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 435-453, August.
- Alice Nakamura & Masao Nakamura, 1994. "Predicting Female Labor Supply: Effects of Children and Recent Work Experience," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 304-327.
- Christopher Carpenter, 2008. "Sexual orientation, income, and non-pecuniary economic outcomes: new evidence from young lesbians in Australia," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 391-408, December.
- Ali M. Ahmed & Mats Hammarstedt, 2009.
"Detecting Discrimination against Homosexuals: Evidence from a Field Experiment on the Internet,"
London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(303), pages 588-597, 07.
- Ahmed, Ali M. & Hammarstedt, Mats, 2007. "Detecting discrimination against homosexuals: Evidence from a field experiment on the Internet," CAFO Working Papers 2007:2, Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University.
- Marieka Klawitter, 2008. "The effects of sexual orientation and marital status on how couples hold their money," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 423-446, December.
- Brighita Negrusa & Sonia Oreffice, 2011. "Sexual orientation and household financial decisions: evidence from couples in the United States," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 445-463, December.
- Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
- Phelps, Edmund S, 1972. "The Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 659-61, September.
- Suzanne Heller Clain & Karen Leppel, 2001. "An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 37-47.
- Josef Montag, 2014.
"What Drives the Gender Gap? An Analysis Using Sexual Orientation,"
CERGE-EI Working Papers
wp505, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economic Institute, Prague.
- Josef Montag, 2014. "What Drives the Gender Gap? An Analysis Using Sexual Orientation," MENDELU Working Papers in Business and Economics 2014-43, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F. Baum).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.