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Alleviating Adverse Implications of EU Climate Policy on Competitiveness: The Case for Border Tax Adjustments or the Clean Development Mechanism?

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  • Anger, Niels
  • Alexeeva-Talebi, Victoria
  • Löschel, Andreas

Abstract

Ambitious unilateral EU environmental policy has raised concerns about adverse competitiveness implications for European energy-intensive and export-oriented sectors. We analyze the economic and environmental implications of two different measures to address these concerns in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS): border tax adjustments (BTA) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy demonstrate that alternative BTA regimes are suitable to alleviate adverse competiveness implications of unilateral European climate policy on energy-intensive and export-oriented industries. The regulatory protection of these industries via subsidies for EU exporters and tariffs for non-EU importers goes, however, at the expense of sectors which are excluded from the EU ETS. We show that the choice of alternative benchmarks (i.e. carbon intensities) for the level of BTA substantially affects these competitiveness implications. The simulations further indicate that limited access to low-cost emission abatement via the CDM in the EU ETS alleviates adverse competitiveness impacts to a comparable extent as the most ambitious BTA scheme. Increasing 'where-flexibility' of emission abatement thus represents an attractive market-based alternative to the application of border tax adjustments in unilateral climate policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Anger, Niels & Alexeeva-Talebi, Victoria & Löschel, Andreas, 2008. "Alleviating Adverse Implications of EU Climate Policy on Competitiveness: The Case for Border Tax Adjustments or the Clean Development Mechanism?," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-095, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:7437
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    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/27572/1/dp08095.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lars Mathiesen and Ottar Maestad, 2004. "Climate Policy and the Steel Industry: Achieving Global Emission Reductions by an Incomplete Climate Agreement," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 91-114.
    2. Alexeeva-Talebi, Victoria & Anger, Niels, 2007. "Developing Supra-European Emissions Trading Schemes: An Efficiency and International Trade Analysis," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-038, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    3. Gernot Klepper & Sonja Peterson, 2004. "The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Allowance Prices, Trade Flows, Competitiveness Effects," Working Papers 2004.49, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Löschel, Andreas & Alexeeva-Talebi, Victoria & Mennel, Tim, 2008. "Climate Policy and the Problem of Competitiveness: Border Tax Adjustments or Integrated Emission Trading?," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-061, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Anger, Niels, 2008. "Emissions trading beyond Europe: Linking schemes in a post-Kyoto world," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 2028-2049, July.
    6. Mustafa H. Babiker & Thomas F. Rutherford, 2005. "The Economic Effects of Border Measures in Subglobal Climate Agreements," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 99-126.
    7. Philippe Quirion & Damien Demailly, 2006. "Leakage from climate policies and border tax adjustment:lessons from a geographic model of the cement industry," CIRED Working Papers halshs-00009337, HAL.
    8. Roland Ismer & Karsten Neuhoff, 2007. "Border tax adjustment: a feasible way to support stringent emission trading," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 137-164, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hübler, Michael, 2012. "Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 315-327.
    2. Monjon, Stéphanie & Quirion, Philippe, 2011. "Addressing leakage in the EU ETS: Border adjustment or output-based allocation?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 1957-1971, September.
    3. Alessandro Antimiani & Valeria Costantini & Chiara Martini & Luca Salvatici, 2011. "Cooperative and non-cooperative solutions to carbon leakage," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0136, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    4. Stéphanie Monjon & Philippe Quirion, 2010. "Addressing leakage in the EU ETS : Border adjustment or output-based allocation ?," Working Papers hal-00866444, HAL.
    5. Daniel Becker & Magdalena Brzeskot & Wolfgang Peters & Ulrike Will, 2013. "Grenzausgleichsinstrumente bei unilateralen Klimaschutzmaßnahmen. Eine ökonomische und WTO-rechtliche Analyse," ZfU - Zeitschrift für Umweltpolitik und Umweltrecht, RECAP15, European University Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder), vol. 36(3), pages 339-373, September.
    6. Astrid KRENZ, "undated". "Modeling the Interaction Between Industries and Services Sectors´ Agglomeration in the European Union," EcoMod2010 259600098, EcoMod.
    7. Antimiani, Alessandro & Costantini, Valeria & Martini, Chiara & Salvatici, Luca & Tommasino, Maria Cristina, 2013. "Assessing alternative solutions to carbon leakage," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 299-311.
    8. repec:euv:dpaper:9999 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Emissions Trading; EU ETS; Competitiveness; Border tax adjustments; Clean Development Mechanism; CGE model;

    JEL classification:

    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment

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