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Climate policy induced investments in developing countries: the implications of investment risks

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  • Böhringer, Christoph
  • Löschel, Andreas

Abstract

International climate policy has assigned the leading role in emissions abatement to the industrialized countries while developing countries remain uncommitted to binding emission reduction targets. However, cooperation between the industrialized and the developing world through joint implementation of emission abatement promises substantial economic gains to both parties. In this context, the policy debate on joint implementation has addressed the question of how investment risks to project-based emission crediting between industrialized countries and developing countries affect the magnitude and distribution of such gains. In our quantitative analysis, we find that the incorporation of country-specific investment risks induces rather small changes vis-?-vis a situation where investment risks are neglected. Only if investors go for high safety of returns is there a distinct decline in the overall volume of emission crediting and the associated total economic benefits. While the welfare effects of risk incorporation for industrialized countries are unequivocally negative, the implications across developing countries are ambiguous. Whereas low-risk developing countries attract higher project volumes and benefit from higher effective prices per emission credit compared to a reference scenario without risk, the opposite applies to high-risk countries. Sensitivity analysis with respect to higher risk estimates show that shifts in the comparative advantage of emission abatement against high-risk countries may become dramatic as only very low-cost mitigation projects will be realized, driving down the country?s benefits from emission crediting to the advantage of low-risk developing countries. This result is supported by empirical evidence on regional imbalances of activities implemented jointly under the pilot phase of the Kyoto Protocol.

Suggested Citation

  • Böhringer, Christoph & Löschel, Andreas, 2002. "Climate policy induced investments in developing countries: the implications of investment risks," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-68, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:1674
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stavins, Robert, 2004. "Environmental Economics," Discussion Papers dp-04-54, Resources For the Future.
    2. Alexander, Gordon J. & Baptista, Alexandre M., 2002. "Economic implications of using a mean-VaR model for portfolio selection: A comparison with mean-variance analysis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 1159-1193, July.
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    4. Samuel Fankhauser & Lucia Lavric, 2003. "The investment climate for climate investment: Joint Implementation in transition countries," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 417-434, December.
    5. Yacine Aït-Sahalia, 2001. "Variable Selection for Portfolio Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1297-1351, August.
    6. World Bank, 2001. "Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14779.
    7. Böhringer, Christoph & Löschel, Andreas, 2001. "Market power in international emissions trading : the impact of U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-58, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    8. Franz Wirl & Claus Huber & I.O Walker, 1998. "Joint Implementation: Strategic Reactions and Possible Remedies," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 12(2), pages 203-224, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:zbw:hohpro:354 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Christoph Böhringer & Thomas F. Rutherford & Marco Springmann, 2013. "Clean-Development Investments: An Incentive-Compatible CGE Modelling Framework," ZenTra Working Papers in Transnational Studies 23 / 2013, ZenTra - Center for Transnational Studies, revised Dec 2013.
    3. repec:old:wpaper:354 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    international climate policy; investment risks;

    JEL classification:

    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water

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