IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/zewdip/12021.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Transaction costs and tradable permits: Empirical evidence from the EU emissions trading scheme

Author

Listed:
  • Heindl, Peter

Abstract

In this paper, transaction costs in the EU emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) are examined empirically based on survey data from German companies. Transaction costs from measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of emissions, permit trading and general informational costs are considered. Transaction costs from MRV and permit trading are of non-linear form and dependent on annual emission and trading volumes based on OLS and nonparametric estimation. As a consequence of non-linear transaction costs, welfare losses occur compared to a first-best setup under zero transaction costs. In practice, smaller emitters will emit less (abate more) compared to larger emitters and vice versa due to economies of scale in the management of emissions trading. The results further imply that optimal firm size might be influenced by transaction costs in the EU ETS because of relatively high average transaction costs amongst smaller emitters. Overall annual transaction costs in the EU ETS in Germany are estimated to be EUR 8.7 million.

Suggested Citation

  • Heindl, Peter, 2012. "Transaction costs and tradable permits: Empirical evidence from the EU emissions trading scheme," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-021, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:12021
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/56029/1/688732356.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Solomon, Barry D., 1999. "New directions in emissions trading: the potential contribution of new institutional economics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 371-387, September.
    2. Montgomery, W. David, 1972. "Markets in licenses and efficient pollution control programs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 395-418, December.
    3. Dahlman, Carl J, 1979. "The Problem of Externality," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(1), pages 141-162, April.
    4. Evy Crals & Lode Vereeck, 2005. "Taxes, Tradable Rights and Transaction Costs," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 199-223, September.
    5. Stavins Robert N., 1995. "Transaction Costs and Tradeable Permits," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 133-148, September.
    6. Downing, Paul B. & White, Lawrence J., 1986. "Innovation in pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 18-29, March.
    7. Klaes, Matthias, 2000. "The History of the Concept of Transaction Costs: Neglected Aspects," Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 191-216, June.
    8. Cason, Timothy N & Gangadharan, Lata, 2003. "Transactions Costs in Tradable Permit Markets: An Experimental Study of Pollution Market Designs," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 145-165, March.
    9. Löschel, Andreas & Brockmann, Karl Ludwig & Heindl, Peter & Lutz, Benjamin & Schumacher, Jan, 2011. "KfW/ZEW CO2 Barometer 2011: Hoher Anpassungsbedarf im EU-Emissionshandel ab 2013 – deutliche Defizite bei der Vorbereitung in den Unternehmen," KfW/ZEW-CO2-Barometer, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, number 109795.
    10. Montero, Juan-Pablo, 1998. "Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty and transaction costs," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 27-50, March.
    11. Qi Li & Jeffrey Scott Racine, 2006. "Nonparametric Econometrics: Theory and Practice," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 8355, April.
    12. Williamson, Oliver E, 1971. "The Vertical Integration of Production: Market Failure Considerations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(2), pages 112-123, May.
    13. Foley, Duncan K., 1970. "Economic equilibrium with costly marketing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 276-291, September.
    14. Milliman, Scott R. & Prince, Raymond, 1989. "Firm incentives to promote technological change in pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 247-265, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Rajesh Singh & Quinn Weninger, 2017. "Cap-and-trade under transactions costs and factor irreversibility," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 64(2), pages 357-407, August.
    2. Christos Constantatos & Eleftherios Filippiadis & Eftichios Sartzetakis, 2014. "Using the allocation of emission permits for strategic trade purposes," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 259-280, June.
    3. Helene Naegele, 2015. "Offset Credits in the EU ETS: A Quantile Estimation of Firm-Level Transaction Costs," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1513, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Marc Baudry & Anouk Faure & Simon Quemin, 2020. "Emissions Trading with Transaction Costs," Working Papers 2007, Chaire Economie du climat.
    5. Kim, Jeonghyun & Seo, Byeongseon, 2015. "Transaction Costs And Nonlinear Mean Reversion In The Eu Emission Trading Scheme," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 56(2), pages 281-296, December.
    6. Jessica Coria & Jūratė Jaraitė, 2019. "Transaction Costs of Upstream Versus Downstream Pricing of $$\hbox {CO}_{2}$$ CO 2 Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 72(4), pages 965-1001, April.
    7. Heindl, Peter, 2012. "Financial intermediaries and emissions trading market development and pricing strategies," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-064, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    8. Jūratė Jaraitė-Kažukauskė & Andrius Kažukauskas, 2015. "Do Transaction Costs Influence Firm Trading Behaviour in the European Emissions Trading System?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 62(3), pages 583-613, November.
    9. Wolfgang Buchholz & Jonas Frank & Hans-Dieter Karl & Johannes Pfeiffer & Karen Pittel & Ursula Triebswetter & Jochen Habermann & Wolfgang Mauch & Thomas Staudacher, 2012. "Die Zukunft der Energiemärkte: Ökonomische Analyse und Bewertung von Potenzialen und Handlungsmöglichkeiten," ifo Forschungsberichte, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 57, October.
    10. Beat Hintermann & Sonja Peterson & Wilfried Rickels, 2016. "Price and Market Behavior in Phase II of the EU ETS: A Review of the Literature," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 108-128.
    11. Naegele, Helene, 2015. "Offset Credits in the EU Emissions Trading System : A Firm-Level Evaluation of Transaction Costs," VfS Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112817, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    12. Brockmann, Karl Ludwig & Heindl, Peter & Löschel, Andreas & Lutz, Benjamin & Schumacher, Jan, 2012. "KfW/ZEW CO2 Barometer 2012: Anreizwirkung des EU-Emissionshandels auf Unternehmen gering – Klimapolitische Regulierung wenig relevant für Standortentscheidungen," KfW/ZEW-CO2-Barometer, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, number 109796.
    13. Koesler, Simon & Achtnicht, Martin & Köhler, Jonathan, 2012. "Capped steam ahead: A case study among ship operators on a maritime ETS," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-044, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    14. Peter Heindl & Sebastian Voigt, 2012. "Supply and demand structure for international offset permits under the Copenhagen Pledges," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 12(4), pages 343-360, November.
    15. Regina A. Betz & Tobias S. Schmidt, 2016. "Transfer patterns in Phase I of the EU Emissions Trading System: a first reality check based on cluster analysis," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 474-495, May.
    16. Coria, Jessica & Jaraite, Jurate, 2015. "Carbon Pricing: Transaction Costs of Emissions Trading vs. Carbon Taxes," Working Papers in Economics 609, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    17. Berger, Johannes & Strohner, Ludwig & Thomas, Tobias, 2020. "Klimainstrumente im Vergleich: Herausforderungen in Hinblick auf ökologische, ökonomische und soziale Nachhaltigkeit," Policy Notes 39, EcoAustria – Institute for Economic Research.
    18. Koesler, Simon & Achtnicht, Martin & Köhler, Jonathan, 2015. "Course set for a cap? A case study among ship operators on a maritime ETS," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 20-30.
    19. Aleksandar Zaklan, 2021. "Coase and Cap-and-Trade: Evidence on the Independence Property from the European Carbon Market," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1925, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    20. Heindl, Peter, 2012. "Mitigating market power under tradeable permits," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-065, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    21. Heindl, Peter & Lutz, Benjamin, 2012. "Carbon management: Evidence from case studies of German firms under the EU ETS," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-079, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Robert W. Hahn & Robert N. Stavins, 2011. "The Effect of Allowance Allocations on Cap-and-Trade System Performance," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(S4), pages 267-294.
    2. Jūratė Jaraitė-Kažukauskė & Andrius Kažukauskas, 2015. "Do Transaction Costs Influence Firm Trading Behaviour in the European Emissions Trading System?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 62(3), pages 583-613, November.
    3. Stavins, Robert, 2004. "Environmental Economics," Discussion Papers dp-04-54, Resources For the Future.
    4. Anouk Faure & Marc Baudry & Simon Quemin, 2020. "Emissions Trading with Transaction Costs," EconomiX Working Papers 2020-19, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    5. John Stranlund & Wei Zhang, 2008. "Bankruptcy risk and the performance of tradable permit markets," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 17(9), pages 1-9.
    6. Peter Heindl & Peter J. Wood & Frank Jotzo, 2014. "Combining International Cap-and-Trade with National Carbon Taxes," CCEP Working Papers 1418, Centre for Climate & Energy Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    7. Olivier Rousse & Benoît Sévi, 2005. "Behavioral Heterogeneity in the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance Trading Program," ERSA conference papers ersa05p550, European Regional Science Association.
    8. Heindl, Peter, 2012. "Financial intermediaries and emissions trading market development and pricing strategies," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-064, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    9. Naegele, Helene, 2015. "Offset Credits in the EU Emissions Trading System : A Firm-Level Evaluation of Transaction Costs," VfS Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112817, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Stavins, Robert N., 2003. "Experience with market-based environmental policy instruments," Handbook of Environmental Economics, in: K. G. Mäler & J. R. Vincent (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 9, pages 355-435, Elsevier.
    11. Naegele, Helene, 2018. "Offset Credits in the EU ETS: A Quantile Estimation of Firm-Level Transaction Costs," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 77-106.
    12. Lehmann, Paul, 2008. "Using a policy mix for pollution control: A review of economic literature," UFZ Discussion Papers 4/2008, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).
    13. Holland, Stephen P. & Moore, Michael R., 2013. "Market design in cap and trade programs: Permit validity and compliance timing," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 671-687.
    14. Sami Hautakangas & Markku Ollikainen, 2019. "Nutrient Trading Between Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Baltic Sea Region," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 73(2), pages 533-556, June.
    15. Stavins, Robert, 2001. "Lessons from the American Experiment with Market-Based Environmental Policies," Working Paper Series rwp01-032, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    16. Rajesh Singh & Quinn Weninger, 2017. "Cap-and-trade under transactions costs and factor irreversibility," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 64(2), pages 357-407, August.
    17. Robert N. Stavins, 1998. "What Can We Learn from the Grand Policy Experiment? Lessons from SO2 Allowance Trading," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(3), pages 69-88, Summer.
    18. Fowlie, Meredith & Perloff, Jeffrey M., 2004. "The Effect of Pollution Permit Allocations on Firm-Level Emissions," CUDARE Working Papers 25116, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    19. Weber, Thomas A. & Neuhoff, Karsten, 2010. "Carbon markets and technological innovation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 115-132, September.
    20. Ellerman, A. Denny & Montero, Juan-Pablo, 1998. "The Declining Trend in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: Implications for Allowance Prices," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 26-45, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Emissions Trading; Transaction Costs; EU ETS;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q52 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:12021. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/zemande.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/zemande.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.