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Akzeptanz der CO2-Bepreisung in Deutschland: Evidenz für private Haushalte vor Einführung des CO2-Preises

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  • Frondel, Manuel
  • Helmers, Viola
  • Mattauch, Linus
  • Pahle, Michael
  • Sommer, Stephan
  • Schmidt, Christoph M.
  • Edenhofer, Ottmar

Abstract

Im Jahr 2021 wurde in Deutschland die sogenannte CO2-Bepreisung fossiler Kraft- und Brennstoffe eingeführt, um deren Verbrauch zum Zwecke des Klimaschutzes zu reduzieren. Dieser Preisaufschlag auf fossile Energieträger wird in den kommenden Jahren sukzessive erhöht. Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Akzeptanz der CO2-Bepreisung für die Zeit kurz vor Einführung des CO2-Preises im Jahr 2019. Eine Erhebung unter mehr als 6.000 Haushalten zeigt, dass eine leichte absolute Mehrheit von 53,7% der Befragten grundsätzlich bereit ist, zu Klimaschutzzwecken höhere Kosten in Kauf zu nehmen. Die Zustimmung zu einer CO2-Bepreisung nimmt jedoch mit sinkendem Einkommen deutlich ab: Bei Befragten der untersten Einkommensgruppe liegt die Zustimmungsrate bei knapp unter 40%. Erwartungsgemäß verringert sich die Zustimmung auch mit der Höhe des CO2-Preises. So wurde ein CO2-Preis von 50 Euro von einer Mehrheit der Befragten von 50,6% abgelehnt. Um bei bis zum Jahr 2025 auf 55 Euro steigenden CO2-Preisen die mehrheitliche Akzeptanz der Bürger zu gewinnen, wird hier für einen breit angelegten Ausgleichsmechanismus durch Reduzierung verzerrender und sozial ungerechter Steuern und Abgaben auf den Strompreis plädiert, der insbesondere Gering- und Durchschnittsverdienern zugutekommt. Andernfalls könnten die über die Zeit steigenden CO2-Preise eine hohe soziale Sprengkraft entfalten.

Suggested Citation

  • Frondel, Manuel & Helmers, Viola & Mattauch, Linus & Pahle, Michael & Sommer, Stephan & Schmidt, Christoph M. & Edenhofer, Ottmar, 2021. "Akzeptanz der CO2-Bepreisung in Deutschland: Evidenz für private Haushalte vor Einführung des CO2-Preises," RWI Materialien 147, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:rwimat:147
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    Keywords

    Diskretes Entscheidungsexperiment; Panelerhebung; Klimawandel;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities

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