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Renteneintrittsalter und Lebensdauer: Was kostet die Frühverrentung?

  • Kühntopf, Stephan
  • Tivig, Thusnelda

In dieser Arbeit wird gezeigt, dass sich für die Versicherten in der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) ein statistischer Zusammenhang zwischen dem Alter bei Renteneintritt und der verbleibenden Lebensdauer nachweisen lässt. So steigt die fernere Lebenserwartung im Alter von 65 Jahren für Männer mit dem Renteneintrittsalter um bis zu 2,3 Jahre an. Die Lebenserwartung für Frauen ist hingegen mit einer maximalen Differenz von 0,4 Jahren nahezu unabhängig vom Renteneintrittsalter. Frühverrentung scheint sich demnach für Männer, gemessen an ihrer Lebenserwartung, nicht zu lohnen, die berechneten Rentenabschläge sind auch zu hoch. Dieser Aspekt differentieller Sterblichkeit, der nicht mit dem Kohorteneffekt einer steigenden Lebenserwartung zu verwechseln ist, kann auch für betriebliche und private Rentenkassen von Bedeutung sein. Eine einfache Modellrechnung für die GRV ergibt, dass sich die Frühverrentung für sie lohnen kann: ein früher Renteneintritt von Männern und Frauen entlastet die GRV, am kostenträchtigsten ist ein Renteneintritt im mittleren Alter von 63-64 Jahren. Am Beispiel des Rentenzugangs 2003 wird aber anschliessend gezeigt, dass die bisher übliche Annahme einer vom Renteneintrittsalter unabhängigen Lebensdauer insgesamt zu einer Deckungslücke in der Rentenversicherung führen kann.

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Paper provided by University of Rostock, Institute of Economics in its series Thuenen-Series of Applied Economic Theory with number 67.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:roswps:67
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  1. Borsch-Supan, Axel & Schnabel, Reinhold, 1998. "Social Security and Declining Labor-Force Participation in Germany," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 173-78, May.
  2. Arnds, Pascal & Bonin, Holger, 2002. "Frühverrentung in Deutschland: Ökonomische Anreize und institutionelle Strukturen," IZA Discussion Papers 666, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Axel Boersch-Supan & Christina B. Wilke, 2004. "The German Public Pension System: How it Was, How it Will Be," NBER Working Papers 10525, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Simone Kohnz & Reinhold Schnabel, 2002. "Micro Modeling of Retirement Decisions in Germany," MEA discussion paper series 02020, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  5. Gary S. Fields & Olivia S. Mitchell, 1984. "Economic Determinants of the Optimal Retirement Age: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 19(2), pages 245-262.
  6. Axel Börsch-Supan, 2002. "Nach der Reform ist vor der Reform:Weitere Schritte für eine nachhaltige Reform der Altersvorsorge in Deutschland," MEA discussion paper series 02015, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  7. Arden Hall & Terry R. Johnson, 1980. "The determinants of planned retirement age," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 33(2), pages 241-254, January.
  8. Stefan Hupfeld, 2006. "Longevity and Redistribution in the German Pension System," Working Papers of the Research Group Heterogenous Labor 06-10, Research Group Heterogeneous Labor, University of Konstanz/ZEW Mannheim.
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