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Ausländische Direktinvestitionen: Flankierende Maßnahmen des Staates

  • Hemmer, Hans-Rimbert
  • Krüger, Ralf
  • Seith, Jennifer
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    Die Attrahierung ausländischer Direktinvestitionen wird aufgrund der mit ihnen verbundenen positiven Wachstumseffekte von den politischen Entscheidungsträgern fast aller Länder als wünschenswert angesehen. In der wissenschaftlichen Debatte wird dabei einem investitionsfreundlichen Umfeld, der geographischen Lage und der Marktgröße eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Investitionsentscheidung eingeräumt. Staatlichen Anreizen, die in fiskalischer, finanzieller oder anderer Form ergriffen werden, kann im Gegensatz dazu höchstens ein geringer Einfluss auf die Investitionsentscheidung attestiert werden. Sie beeinflussen die Investitionsentscheidung meist nur innerhalb von Regionen mit ähnlichen Gegebenheiten. Aus der hier vorgenommenen Analyse genereller und spezieller staatlicher Maßnahmen auf ihre Wirkungen und die damit verbundenen Probleme resultieren die folgenden Empfehlungen: Aufgrund positiver Externalitäten sind staatliche Interventionen insbesondere für technologie- und wissensintensive Investitionen gerechtfertigt. Ausschlaggebend sollte allerdings die Art der Investition und nicht deren Herkunft sein. Staatliche Anreize sollten daher nicht diskriminierend gestaltet sein und zudem zeitlich gestreckt vergeben werden, um gezielt Investitionen in Forschung und Entwicklung sowie Aus- und Fortbildung oder mit signifikanten Kopplungseffekten zu fördern. Zudem sollte die Attrahierungspolitik für ausländische Direktinvestitionen nicht isoliert konzipiert, sondern Teil der nationalen Wachstums- und Innovationspolitik sein. Staatliche Anreize haben somit in einzelnen Bereichen ihre Berechtigung. Die Investitionsentscheidung hängt jedoch in einem viel stärkeren Maße von den fundamentalen Bedingungen in dem jeweiligen Land ab, wobei die Rolle einer ausreichenden Infrastruktur, aber vor allem ein ausreichender Stand an Humankapital besonders herauszustellen ist. Verstärkte Anstrengungen in der Bildungspolitik ermöglichen zudem die positiven Wachstumseffekte von FDI durch eine gleichmäßigere Verteilung zur Armutsbekämpfung zu nutzen.

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    Paper provided by Justus Liebig University Giessen, Institute for Development Economics in its series Discussion Papers in Development Economics with number 36.

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    Date of creation: 2006
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:jluide:36
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