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Illicit drugs and the decline of the middle class

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  • Grossmann, Volker
  • Strulik, Holger

Abstract

Empirical evidence for the U.S. suggests that the consumption of intoxicants increases in association with the socio-economic deprivation of the middle-class. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we set up a task-based labor market model with endogenous mental health status and a health care system. The decline of tasks that were historically performed by the middle class and the associated decline in relative wages and socio-economic status increases the share of mentally ill middle class workers. Mentally ill workers can mitigate their hardships by the intake of illicit drugs or by consuming health goods. We argue that explaining the drug epidemic of the U.S. middle class requires an interaction of socio-economic decline and falling opioid prices. One factor in isolation is typically insufficient. Our analysis also points to a central role of the health care system. In our model, extending mental health care could motivate the mentally ill to abstain from illicit drug consumption.

Suggested Citation

  • Grossmann, Volker & Strulik, Holger, 2018. "Illicit drugs and the decline of the middle class," University of Göttingen Working Papers in Economics 353, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:cegedp:353
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    Cited by:

    1. Cohle, Zachary & Ortega, Alberto, 2023. "The effect of the opioid crisis on patenting," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 493-521.
    2. Simone Balestra & Helge Liebert & Nicole Maestas & Tisamarie B. Sherry, 2021. "Behavioral Responses to Supply-Side Drug Policy During the Opioid Epidemic," NBER Working Papers 29596, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Krenz, Astrid & Strulik, Holger, 2022. "Automation and the Fall and Rise of the Servant Economy," VfS Annual Conference 2022 (Basel): Big Data in Economics 264034, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Strulik, Holger, 2022. "A health economic theory of occupational choice, aging, and longevity," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C).
    5. Strulik, Holger, 2021. "From pain patient to junkie: An economic theory of painkiller consumption and its impact on wellbeing and longevity," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    6. Strulik, Holger, 2020. "Opioid epidemics," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 37(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Socio-economic deprivation; Intoxicants; Health insurance; Mental health; Middle class;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health

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