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Product Differentiation, Fiscal Policy, and Free Entry

  • Luís F. Costa

Entry is recognized to be an important issue in macro models considering imperfectly competitive markets. However, two lines of research have been kept apart: the homogeneous-product oligopoly approach, where entry means more firms in the industry, and the monopolistic competition approach, where it means more brands. Our model tries to go beyond these limitations, considering a small open economy within a monetary union (characterised by a fixed exchange rate and perfect financial capital mobility). In this economy each industry produces a differentiated non-tradable good and is composed several Cournot competitors. Competition works at both the intraindustry and sector level. Decisions on both taxes and government expenditure are taken by the economy’s government, i.e., fiscal policy is decentralised within the monetary union. Since the model generates multiple equilibria, three types of entry are considered: more firms (I), more industries (II), and a combination of both (III). Fiscal policy is shown to be effective on aggregate output under the three cases. Its effect on welfare is mainly walrasian in case II, but it can be keynesian when market power is high in cases I or III.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of York in its series Discussion Papers with number 98/20.

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Handle: RePEc:yor:yorken:98/20
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  1. Obstfeld, Maurice & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Exchange Rate Dynamics Redux," CEPR Discussion Papers 1131, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Dixon, Huw David & Rankin, Neil, 1994. "Imperfect Competition and Macroeconomics: A Survey," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(2), pages 171-99, April.
  3. Dixon, Huw David & Santoni, Michele, 1994. "An Imperfectly Competitive Open Economy with Sequential Bargaining in the Labour Market," CEPR Discussion Papers 937, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. D'Aspremont, C. & Dos Santos Ferreira, R. & Gerard-Varet, L.A., 1992. "General Equilibrium Concepts Under Imperfect Competition: A Cournotien Approach," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 92a03, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
  5. Sutherland, Alan, 1996. " Financial Market Integration and Macroeconomic Volatility," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(4), pages 521-39, December.
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  7. Peretto, Pietro F, 1996. "Sunk Costs, Market Structure, and Growth," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(4), pages 895-923, November.
  8. Dixon, Huw & Lawler, Phillip, 1996. " Imperfect Competition and the Fiscal Multiplier," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(2), pages 219-31, June.
  9. Startz, Richard, 1989. "Monopolistic Competition as a Foundation for Keynesian Macroeconomic Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(4), pages 737-52, November.
  10. Snower, Dennis J, 1983. "Imperfect Competition, Underemployment and Crowding-Out," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(0), pages 245-70, Supplemen.
  11. Heijdra, Ben J & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1996. "Keynesian Multipliers and the Cost of Public Funds under Monopolistic Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1284-96, September.
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