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Das Spannungsfeld von Protektion, Liberalisierung und Freihandel

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  • Wilhelm Kohler

Abstract

Zwischen der ökonomischen Theorie und der praktizierten Handelspolitik besteht ein gespanntes Verhältnis. Häufig wird der Theorie unterstellt, sie predige einseitig und unverantwortlich Freihandel, andererseits scheint die Politik diesem Rat ohnehin massiv zu widersprechen. Praktiziert wird ja nicht Freihandel, sondern ein Gemisch aus Importprotektion und Exportsubventionierung, und Handelsliberalisierung gestaltet sich oft als schwieriger und langwieriger Prozess. Erklärbar ist diese Politik im Detail nur durch die Besonderheiten, wenn man so will das Versagen, des politischen Prozesses. Was besagt die „Lehre vom Freihandel“ wirklich? Wie sieht die Rhetorik, wie die Praxis der Handelspolitik aus? Warum ist die Politik so, wie sie ist? Kann man die starke Zunahme des Welthandels nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg, verbunden mit insgesamt doch beeindruckendem Wirtschaftswachstum, als Erfolgsgeschichte des GATT und der WTO interpretieren? Gehört die Zukunft dem multilateralen Welthandelssystem oder einem Geflecht von regionalen Handelsblöcken?

Suggested Citation

  • Wilhelm Kohler, 2010. "Das Spannungsfeld von Protektion, Liberalisierung und Freihandel," FIW Policy Brief series 008, FIW.
  • Handle: RePEc:wsr:pbrief:y:2010:i:008
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Rose, Andrew K., 2004. "Do WTO members have more liberal trade policy?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 209-235, July.
    2. Andrew K. Rose, 2004. "Do We Really Know That the WTO Increases Trade?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 98-114, March.
    3. Gabriel Felbermayr & Wilhelm Kohler, 2010. "Modelling the Extensive Margin of World Trade: New Evidence on GATT and WTO Membership," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(11), pages 1430-1469, November.
    4. Paul R. Krugman, 1991. "The move toward free trade zones," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 7-58.
    5. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
    6. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994. "Protection for Sale," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 833-850, September.
    7. Mayer, Wolfgang, 1984. "Endogenous Tariff Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 970-985, December.
    8. Antoni Estevadeordal & Caroline Freund & Emanuel Ornelas, 2008. "Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Toward Nonmembers?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(4), pages 1531-1575.
    9. Francisco Rodriguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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