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Das Spannungsfeld von Protektion, Liberalisierung und Freihandel

  • Wilhelm Kohler
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    Zwischen der ökonomischen Theorie und der praktizierten Handelspolitik besteht ein gespanntes Verhältnis. Häufig wird der Theorie unterstellt, sie predige einseitig und unverantwortlich Freihandel, andererseits scheint die Politik diesem Rat ohnehin massiv zu widersprechen. Praktiziert wird ja nicht Freihandel, sondern ein Gemisch aus Importprotektion und Exportsubventionierung, und Handelsliberalisierung gestaltet sich oft als schwieriger und langwieriger Prozess. Erklärbar ist diese Politik im Detail nur durch die Besonderheiten, wenn man so will das Versagen, des politischen Prozesses. Was besagt die „Lehre vom Freihandel“ wirklich? Wie sieht die Rhetorik, wie die Praxis der Handelspolitik aus? Warum ist die Politik so, wie sie ist? Kann man die starke Zunahme des Welthandels nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg, verbunden mit insgesamt doch beeindruckendem Wirtschaftswachstum, als Erfolgsgeschichte des GATT und der WTO interpretieren? Gehört die Zukunft dem multilateralen Welthandelssystem oder einem Geflecht von regionalen Handelsblöcken?

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    Paper provided by FIW in its series FIW Policy Brief series with number 008.

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    Length: 10
    Date of creation: Nov 2010
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:wsr:pbrief:y:2010:i:008
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    Order Information: Postal: FIW Project Office Austrian Institute of Economic Research Arsenal Objekt 20 A-1030 Vienna

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    1. Mayer, Wolfgang, 1984. "Endogenous Tariff Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 970-85, December.
    2. Andrew K. Rose, 2002. "Do We Really KNow that the WTO Increases Trade?," Working Papers 182002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    3. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Kohler, Wilhelm K., 2010. "Modelling the extensive margin of world trade: New evidence on GATT and WTO membership," Munich Reprints in Economics 20605, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    4. Rodríguez, Francisco & Rodrik, Dani, 1999. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Sceptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 2143, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Andrew K. Rose, 2002. "Do WTO Members have More Liberal Trade Policy?," NBER Working Papers 9347, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994. "Protection for Sale," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 833-50, September.
    7. Paul R. Krugman, 1991. "The move toward free trade zones," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 7-58.
    8. Antoni Estevadeordal & Caroline Freund & Emanuel Ornelas, 2008. "Does Regionalism Affect Trade Liberalization Towards Non-Members?," CEP Discussion Papers dp0868, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    9. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
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