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Gender And Public Spending On Education In Pakistan: A Case Study Of Disaggregated Benefit Incidence

  • Muhammad Sabir

    (Social Policy & Development Centre)

To what extent has government education spending in Pakistan been effective in reducing gender gaps in enrollments? To answer this question, this article reviews the benefit incidence of government education spending. It finds that government subsidies directed towards primary education are pro poor in all four provinces of Pakistan. Moreover, females has disadvantage in access to primary education. However, government subsidies directed towards higher education poorly targeted and poorest income group receives less than the riches income group and indeed favor those who are better off. Similarly, the gender disparity in access to public subsidy is higher at tertiary level and lowest at primary level, which also reflects poor targeting. Improving targeting to the poor as well as better female participation involves not simply rearranging the public subsidies, but also addressing the constraints that prevent the poor and females from accessing these services.

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File URL: http://econwpa.repec.org/eps/pe/papers/0503/0503005.pdf
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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Public Economics with number 0503005.

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Length: 21 pages
Date of creation: 11 Mar 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwppe:0503005
Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 21
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org

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  1. Castro-Leal, Florencia & Dayton, Julia & Demery, Lionel & Mehra, Kalpana, 1999. "Public Social Spending in Africa: Do the Poor Benefit?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 49-72, February.
  2. Crouch, Luis A., 1996. "Public education equity and efficiency in South Africa: Lessons for other countries," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 125-137, April.
  3. van de Walle, Dominique, 1994. "The Distribution of Subsidies through Public Health Services in Indonesia, 1978-87," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 279-309, May.
  4. Shahnaz Hamid & Rehana Siddiqui, 2001. "Gender Differences in Demand for Schooling," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 1077-1092.
  5. van de Walle, Dominique, 1998. "Assessing the welfare impacts of public spending," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 365-379, March.
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