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Gender And Public Spending On Education In Pakistan: A Case Study Of Disaggregated Benefit Incidence


  • Muhammad Sabir

    (Social Policy & Development Centre)


To what extent has government education spending in Pakistan been effective in reducing gender gaps in enrollments? To answer this question, this article reviews the benefit incidence of government education spending. It finds that government subsidies directed towards primary education are pro poor in all four provinces of Pakistan. Moreover, females has disadvantage in access to primary education. However, government subsidies directed towards higher education poorly targeted and poorest income group receives less than the riches income group and indeed favor those who are better off. Similarly, the gender disparity in access to public subsidy is higher at tertiary level and lowest at primary level, which also reflects poor targeting. Improving targeting to the poor as well as better female participation involves not simply rearranging the public subsidies, but also addressing the constraints that prevent the poor and females from accessing these services.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Sabir, 2005. "Gender And Public Spending On Education In Pakistan: A Case Study Of Disaggregated Benefit Incidence," Public Economics 0503005, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwppe:0503005
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 21

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Castro-Leal, Florencia & Dayton, Julia & Demery, Lionel & Mehra, Kalpana, 1999. "Public Social Spending in Africa: Do the Poor Benefit?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 49-72, February.
    2. Shahnaz Hamid & Rehana Siddiqui, 2001. "Gender Differences in Demand for Schooling," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 1077-1092.
    3. van de Walle, Dominique, 1998. "Assessing the welfare impacts of public spending," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 365-379, March.
    4. van de Walle, Dominique, 1994. "The Distribution of Subsidies through Public Health Services in Indonesia, 1978-87," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 279-309, May.
    5. Crouch, Luis A., 1996. "Public education equity and efficiency in South Africa: Lessons for other countries," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 125-137, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. World Bank, 2006. "Pakistan : An Assessment of the Medium-Term Development Framework," World Bank Other Operational Studies 19450, The World Bank.
    2. Lekha Chakraborty, 2016. "Asia; A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts," IMF Working Papers 16/150, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Ahmed Nawaz Hakro & Muhammed Akram, 2007. "The Incidence of Government Expenditures on Education and Health: Microeconomic Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 27-48, Jul-Dec.
    4. Chakraborty, Lekha, 2019. "Federal fiscal policy effectiveness and Inequality: Empirical evidence on Gender Budgeting in Asia Pacific," Working Papers 19/273, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.

    More about this item


    Gender; Public Expenditure on Education; Benefit Incidence;

    JEL classification:

    • D6 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics
    • D7 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
    • H - Public Economics

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