Capital Inflows and Macroeconomic Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa
Little has been written about capital flows to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), largely because of the flows' small size and data limitations. In this working paper, Louis Kasekende, executive director for policy and research at the Bank of Uganda; Damoni Kitabire, commissioner for the Macroeconomic Policy Department for the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning in Kampala; and Matthew Martin, director of external finance for Africa, explore these inflows, noting that although they are small compared to those into other countries, they are in proportion to the size of the recipient economies. The authors examine the scale and composition of capital inflows, their causes and sustainability, their effect on macroeconomic stability, and their responsiveness to policy measures for six SSA nations: Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Exhibit 5 shows the change in the composition of private capital flows to SSA nations. Most of the changes are in the same direction as in other developing regions, but the magnitude of the changes in other regions is generally greater than in SSA countries. The absolute size of these changes are, however, still small. For example, portfolio investment was no more than U.S.$120 million per year and foreign direct investment was around U.S.$1.6 billion during the period 1990 to 1993, with foreign direct investment lower in real terms than in the early 1980s. Overall, SSA inflow trends were similar to those in other small countries, with short-term bank loans and foreign direct investment playing a greater role than medium- to long-term loans and portfolio inflows. Kasekende, Kitabire, and Martin identify a number of determinants of recent capital inflows, which they classify as push (external) or pull (internal) factors.
|Date of creation:||10 Sep 1998|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||Type of Document - Acrobat PDF; prepared on IBM PC; to print on PostScript; pages: 43; figures: included|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bernhard Fischer & Helmut Reisen, 1992. "Towards Capital Account Convertibility," OECD Development Centre Policy Briefs 4, OECD Publishing.
- Dadush, Uri & Dhareshwar, Ashok & Johannes, Ron, 1994. "Are private capital flows to developing countries sustainable?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1397, The World Bank.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Khan, Mohsin, 1995.
"Capital Flows in the APEC Region,"
8200, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Carmen Reinhart & Mohsin S. Khan, 1995. "Capital Flows in the APEC Region," IMF Occasional Papers 122, International Monetary Fund.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Khan, Mohsin, 1995. "Macroeconomic Management in APEC Economies: The Response to Capital Inflows," MPRA Paper 8148, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Classens, S. & Dooley, M.P. & Warner, A., 1995.
"Portfolio Capital Flows: Hot or Cold,"
501, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
- Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & DEC, 1994.
"The new wave of private capital inflows : push or pull?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1312, The World Bank.
- Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo, 1996. "The new wave of private capital inflows: Push or pull?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 389-418, March.
- Michael P. Dooley & Eduardo Fernandez-Arias & Kenneth M. Kletzer, 1994. "Recent Private Capital Inflows to Developing Countries: Is the Debt Crisis History?," NBER Working Papers 4792, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Reinhart, Vincent, 1999.
"On the use of reserve requirements in dealing with capital flow problems,"
13703, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999. "On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
- Calvo, Sara & Reinhart, Carmen, 1996.
"Capital flows to Latin America : Is there evidence of contagion effects?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1619, The World Bank.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Sara Calvo, 1996. "Capital Flows to Latin America: Is There Evidence of Contagion Effects?," Peterson Institute Press: Chapters, in: Guillermo A. Calvo & Morris Goldstein & Eduard Hochreiter (ed.), Private Capital Flows to Emerging Markets After the Mexican Crisis, pages 151-171 Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Sara, 1996. "Capital Flows to Latin America: Is There Evidence of Contagion Effects?”," MPRA Paper 7124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Gooptu, Sudarshan, 1994. "Are portfolio flows to emerging markets complementary or competitive?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1360, The World Bank.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1994.
"Sterilization of Money Inflows; Difficult (Calvo) or Easy (Reisen)?,"
IMF Working Papers
94/159, International Monetary Fund.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1997. "Sterilization of money inflows: Difficult (Calvo) or Easy (Reisen)?," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 24(2 Year 19), pages 263-285, December.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel., 1993. "Sterilization of Money Inflows: Difficult (Calvo) or Easy (Reisen)?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-024, University of California at Berkeley.
- Frankel, Jeffrey A., 1993. "Sterilization of Money Inflows: Difficult (Calvo) or Easy (Reisen)?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233206, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
- Carlos A. VÃ©gh Gramont & Ratna Sahay & Guillermo Calvo, 1995. "Capital Flows in Central and Eastern Europe; Evidence and Policy Options," IMF Working Papers 95/57, International Monetary Fund.
- Elbadawi, Ibrahim A. & Soto, Raimundo, 1994. "Capital flows and long-term equilibrium real exchange rates in Chile," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1306, The World Bank.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Asea, Patrick, 1995. "Real interest rate differentials and the real exchange rate: Evidence from four African countries," MPRA Paper 13357, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Chuhan, Punam & Claessens, Stijn & Mamingi, Nlandu, 1998. "Equity and bond flows to Latin America and Asia: the role of global and country factors," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 439-463, April.
- Hanson, James A., 1992. "Opening the capital account : a survey of issues and results," Policy Research Working Paper Series 901, The World Bank.
- Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Montiel, Peter J., 1995. "The surge in capital inflows to developing countries : prospects and policy response," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1473, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:9809005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.