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What is Left to Residual Claimants? The Empirics of Income Reported by Entrepreneurs and Workers

Author

Listed:
  • Panu Poutvaara

    (Centre for Economic & Business Research, CESifo & IZA)

  • Juha Tuomala

    (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT)

Abstract

Using Finnish panel data, we study how entrepreneurs differ from workers in education and income dynamics. We find that workers have higher median income in all educational groups. Without additional controls, entrepreneurs have higher average income with all but undergraduate level of education. However, random effects and matching models suggest that entrepreneurs have lower incomes. We also analyze those who changed careers. Those with higher level of education are more likely to switch from entrepreneurship to workers, while education does not explain, in a statistically significant level, switching from being worker to entrepreneurship.

Suggested Citation

  • Panu Poutvaara & Juha Tuomala, 2004. "What is Left to Residual Claimants? The Empirics of Income Reported by Entrepreneurs and Workers," Labor and Demography 0406001, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0406001
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 23
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-748, August.
    2. Aki Kangasharju & Sari Pekkala, 2001. "The Role of Education in Self-Employment Success," Studies in Economics 0116, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    3. Kyyrä, Tomi, 1999. "Post-Unemployment Wages and Economic Incentives to Exit from Unemployment," Research Reports 56, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    4. A. D. Roy, 1951. "Some Thoughts On The Distribution Of Earnings," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(2), pages 135-146.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ari Hyytinen & Olli-Pekka Ruuskanen, 2007. "Time Use of the Self-Employed," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 105-122, February.
    2. Maliranta, Mika & Nurmi, Satu, 2004. "Analyzing Entrepreneurship with the Finnish Linked Employer-Employee Data (FLEED).Matching and qualitative properties of the data," Discussion Papers 920, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    3. Matthias Benz, "undated". "Entrepreneurship as a non-profit-seeking activity," IEW - Working Papers 243, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
    4. Vesa Kanniainen & Mikko Leppämäki, 2009. "Union power, entrepreneurial risk, and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 293-302, October.
    5. Maliranta, Mika & Nurmi, Satu, 2004. "Do Foreign Players Change the Nature of the Game Among Local Entrepreneurs?," Discussion Papers 942, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurs; Workers; Finnish labor market; Education;

    JEL classification:

    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education

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