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Tijuana's Dynamic Unemployment and Output Growth

Listed author(s):
  • Alejandro Diaz-Bautista


During the 1990's, Mexico successfully implemented a program of economic reforms and free trade aimed at a complete restructuring of its economy. Surprisingly, the reform process seems to have had little impact on unemployment. An analysis of trends indicates that, even in the worst years of economic crisis, average unemployment rates in Mexico did not exceed 7.4% (reached in the third quarter of 1995). Tijuana's unemployment rate averaged 0.725% in 2001, when the economy was experiencing the start of a recession and major structural reforms were expected. These figures seem very low when compared to those for other countries. This article's goal is to evaluate transitory demand shocks and permanent supply shocks in Tijuana's unemployment time series, as given by that identification restriction and the structural break unit root methodology. Okun's Law is also tested for the Tijuana unemployment series. Keywords: 1. unit root, 2. output, 3. unemployment, 4. Tijuana, 5. Mexico. Resumen: En la década pasada, México estableció un programa de reformas económicas y de libre comercio encaminadas a la completa reestructuración de su economía. Sorprendentemente, el proceso de reforma tiene poco impacto en el desempleo. Un análisis de las tendencias indica que, aun en los peores trimestres de la crisis económica, la tasa de desempleo promedio no fue mayor de 7.4%. La tasa de desempleo trimestral de la ciudad de Tijuana en 2001 alcanzó en promedio 0.725%, en un período donde inició una recesión en la economía. Estas cifras son bajas al ser comparadas con las de otros países. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar los choques transitorios de la demanda y los permanentes de la oferta en el desempleo en Tijuana en diferentes períodos. Para ello utiliza la restricción de identificación y la metodología de raíz unitaria con corte estructural. La ley de Okun también es verificada para conocer la evolución del desempleo en Tijuana. Palabras clave: 1. raíz unitaria, 2. producción, 3. desempleo, 4. Tijuana, 5. México.Artículo recibido el 5 de marzo de 2002.Artículo aceptado el 20 de noviembre de 2002.

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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Labor and Demography with number 0401001.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: 16 Jan 2004
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0401001
Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on Win98; to print on Lexmark; pages: 25. Díaz-Bautista, Alejandro (2003), "Tijuana's Dynamic Unemployment and Output Growth", Frontera Norte, Volume 15, No. 29, January-June, pp. 125-150.
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  1. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Quah, Danny, 1989. "The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbances," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 655-673, September.
  2. John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1991, Volume 6, pages 141-220 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Revenga, Ana & Riboud, Michelle & DEC, 1993. "Unemployment in Mexico : its characteristics and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1230, The World Bank.
  4. Gil-Alana, L. A. & Robinson, P. M., 1997. "Testing of unit root and other nonstationary hypotheses in macroeconomic time series," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 241-268, October.
  5. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "Regional Evolutions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 1-76.
  6. Gamber, Edward N. & Joutz, Frederick L., 1993. "An application of estimating structural vector autoregression models with long-run restrictions," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 723-745.
  7. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
  8. Enders, Walter & Lee, Bong-Soo, 1997. "Accounting for real and nominal exchange rate movements in the post-Bretton Woods period," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 233-254, April.
  9. Christiano, Lawrence J, 1992. "Searching for a Break in GNP," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 237-250, July.
  10. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
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