IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Tijuana's Dynamic Unemployment and Output Growth


  • Alejandro Diaz-Bautista



During the 1990's, Mexico successfully implemented a program of economic reforms and free trade aimed at a complete restructuring of its economy. Surprisingly, the reform process seems to have had little impact on unemployment. An analysis of trends indicates that, even in the worst years of economic crisis, average unemployment rates in Mexico did not exceed 7.4% (reached in the third quarter of 1995). Tijuana's unemployment rate averaged 0.725% in 2001, when the economy was experiencing the start of a recession and major structural reforms were expected. These figures seem very low when compared to those for other countries. This article's goal is to evaluate transitory demand shocks and permanent supply shocks in Tijuana's unemployment time series, as given by that identification restriction and the structural break unit root methodology. Okun's Law is also tested for the Tijuana unemployment series. Keywords: 1. unit root, 2. output, 3. unemployment, 4. Tijuana, 5. Mexico. Resumen: En la década pasada, México estableció un programa de reformas económicas y de libre comercio encaminadas a la completa reestructuración de su economía. Sorprendentemente, el proceso de reforma tiene poco impacto en el desempleo. Un análisis de las tendencias indica que, aun en los peores trimestres de la crisis económica, la tasa de desempleo promedio no fue mayor de 7.4%. La tasa de desempleo trimestral de la ciudad de Tijuana en 2001 alcanzó en promedio 0.725%, en un período donde inició una recesión en la economía. Estas cifras son bajas al ser comparadas con las de otros países. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar los choques transitorios de la demanda y los permanentes de la oferta en el desempleo en Tijuana en diferentes períodos. Para ello utiliza la restricción de identificación y la metodología de raíz unitaria con corte estructural. La ley de Okun también es verificada para conocer la evolución del desempleo en Tijuana. Palabras clave: 1. raíz unitaria, 2. producción, 3. desempleo, 4. Tijuana, 5. México.Artículo recibido el 5 de marzo de 2002.Artículo aceptado el 20 de noviembre de 2002.

Suggested Citation

  • Alejandro Diaz-Bautista, 2004. "Tijuana's Dynamic Unemployment and Output Growth," Labor and Demography 0401001, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0401001
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on Win98; to print on Lexmark; pages: 25. Díaz-Bautista, Alejandro (2003), "Tijuana's Dynamic Unemployment and Output Growth", Frontera Norte, Volume 15, No. 29, January-June, pp. 125-150.

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Quah, Danny, 1989. "The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbances," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 655-673, September.
    2. John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1991, Volume 6, pages 141-220 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Christiano, Lawrence J, 1992. "Searching for a Break in GNP," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 237-250, July.
    4. Revenga, Ana & Riboud, Michelle & DEC, 1993. "Unemployment in Mexico : its characteristics and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1230, The World Bank.
    5. Gil-Alana, L. A. & Robinson, P. M., 1997. "Testing of unit root and other nonstationary hypotheses in macroeconomic time series," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 241-268, October.
    6. Olivier Jean Blanchard & Lawrence F. Katz, 1992. "Regional Evolutions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(1), pages 1-76.
    7. Gamber, Edward N. & Joutz, Frederick L., 1993. "An application of estimating structural vector autoregression models with long-run restrictions," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 723-745.
    8. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
    9. Enders, Walter & Lee, Bong-Soo, 1997. "Accounting for real and nominal exchange rate movements in the post-Bretton Woods period," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 233-254, April.
    10. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    1. unit roots 2. output 3. unemployment 4. Tijuana 5. Mexico.;

    JEL classification:

    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • L0 - Industrial Organization - - General
    • N0 - Economic History - - General
    • N3 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy
    • N6 - Economic History - - Manufacturing and Construction
    • R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0401001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.