Aid through Trade: An effective option
I examine the scope for and desirability of the U.S. assistance to the poor countries through three separate trade policy measures: one-way trade preferences as, for example, under the Generalized System of Preferences; bilateral trade preferences as under free trade area arrangements as under the U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement; and multilateral trade liberalization as under the Uruguay Round Agreement. My principal conclusion is that of these three forms of market access, only the last one is both desirable and feasible. I also argue that further opening of developed country markets, no matter what form it takes, can help the poor countries only in a limited way. Despite all the rhetoric and assertions to the contrary, the bitter and sad truth is that even if developed countries were to open their markets fully without asking for reciprocal liberalization and without any side conditions, few poor countries will succeed in achieving significant growth and poverty reduction purely as a consequence of this opening up. The explanation for the poor growth performance of many poor countries is to be found not in the barriers to their exports in the rich countries--though these barriers do impose a burden on them--but in their own domestic policies and political environment that governs the internal investment climate.
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- Arvind Panagariya, 1999.
"The Regionalism Debate: An Overview,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(4), pages 477-512, 06.
- Arvind Panagariya, 2002. "EU Preferential Trade Arrangements and Developing Countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(10), pages 1415-1432, November.
- Arvind Panagariya, 2003.
"Developing Countries at Doha: A Political Economy Analysis,"
- Arvind Panagariya, 2002. "Developing Countries at Doha: A Political Economy Analysis," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(9), pages 1205-1233, 09.
- Grossman, Gene M, 1982. "Import Competition from Developed and Developing Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(2), pages 271-81, May.
- Mattoo, Aaditya & Roy, Devesh & Subramanian, Arvind, 2002.
"The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and its rules of origin : generosity undermined?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2908, The World Bank.
- Aaditya Mattoo & Devesh Roy & Arvind Subramanian, 2003. "The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and its Rules of Origin: Generosity Undermined?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(6), pages 829-851, 06.
- Arvind Subramanian & Aaditya Mattoo & Devesh Roy, 2002. "The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and its Rules of Origin; Generosity Undermined?," IMF Working Papers 02/158, International Monetary Fund.
- Arvind Panagariya, 2000. "Preferential Trade Liberalization: The Traditional Theory and New Developments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(2), pages 287-331, June.
- Brown, Drusilla K, 1989. "Trade and Welfare Effects of the European Schemes of the Generalized System of Preferences," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(4), pages 757-77, July.
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