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Panel Stationarity Tests with Cross-sectional Dependence


  • David Harris


  • Steve Leybourne


  • Brendan McCabe



We present a test of the null hypothesis of stationarity against unit root alternatives for panel data that allows for arbitrary cross- sectional dependence. We treat the short run time series dynamics non- parametrically and thus avoid the need to fit separate models for the individual series. The statistic is simple to compute and is asymptotically normally distributed, even in the presence of a wide range of deterministic components. Taken together, these features provide a generally applicable solution to the problem of testing for stationarity versus unit roots in macro-panel based data. The test is applied to assess the validity of the purchasing power parity hypothesis and finds significant evidence against the hypothesis being true.

Suggested Citation

  • David Harris & Steve Leybourne & Brendan McCabe, 2003. "Panel Stationarity Tests with Cross-sectional Dependence," Econometrics 0311005, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:0311005
    Note: Type of Document - ; pages: 21

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
    2. Papell, David H., 1997. "Searching for stationarity: Purchasing power parity under the current float," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 313-332, November.
    3. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S., 2000. "On cross-country differences in the persistence of real exchange rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 375-397, April.
    4. Chang, Yoosoon, 2004. "Bootstrap unit root tests in panels with cross-sectional dependency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 263-293, June.
    5. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    6. Tanaka, Katsuto, 1999. "The Nonstationary Fractional Unit Root," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(04), pages 549-582, August.
    7. Harris, David & McCabe, Brendan & Leybourne, Stephen, 2003. "Some Limit Theory For Autocovariances Whose Order Depends On Sample Size," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(05), pages 829-864, October.
    8. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    9. O'Connell, Paul G. J., 1998. "The overvaluation of purchasing power parity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-19, February.
    10. Oh, Keun-Yeob, 1996. "Purchasing power parity and unit root tests using panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 405-418, June.
    11. Yoosoon Chang & Wonho Song, 2002. "Panel Unit Root Tests in the Presence of Cross-Sectional Dependency and Heterogeneity," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 B5-2, International Conferences on Panel Data.
    12. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lau, Marco Chi Keung & Fung, Ka Wai Terence, 2013. "Convergence in Health Care Expenditure of 14 EU Countries: New Evidence from Non-linear Panel Unit Root Test," MPRA Paper 52871, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Snaith, Stuart, 2012. "The PPP debate: Multiple breaks and cross-sectional dependence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 342-344.
    3. Yiannis Karavias & Elias Tzavalis, "undated". "The power performance of fixed-T panel unit root tests allowing for structural breaks," Discussion Papers 13/01, University of Nottingham, Granger Centre for Time Series Econometrics.
    4. Diego Romero-Ávila & Carlos Usabiaga, 2008. "On the persistence of Spanish unemployment rates," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 77-99, August.
    5. Mario Cerrato & Nicholas Sarantis, 2007. "Does purchasing power parity hold in emerging markets? Evidence from a panel of black market exchange rates," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 427-444.
    6. Coakley, Jerry & Kellard, Neil & Snaith, Stuart, 2005. "The PPP debate: Price matters!," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 209-213, August.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables
    • C4 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics
    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • C8 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs

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