Inequalities in Access to Employment and the Impact on Wellbeing: A Criterion for Spatial Planning?
This paper attempts to address three questions: (1) How unequal is access to employment and the wellbeing associated with it? (2) What is the money value consumers place on access to employment? and (3) How does the inequality of access to employment correspond to the geographical pattern of variation in social deprivation? On the basis that house prices, once adjusted for property type and size, reflect variation quality of life across space, econometric estimates of the impact of employment access on house prices can be used to simulate the impact on inequality of wellbeing. With this rationale in mind, we use the Osland and Pryce (2009) house price model to derive an appropriate measure of Access Welfare â€šÃ„Ã¬ the wellbeing associated with locating at a given distance to employment â€šÃ„Ã¬ and to put a money value on that welfare. The model also allows us to incorporate the negative externalities associated with living in close proximity to centres of employment, and the complexities that arise from the existence of multiple employment centres of varying size. We use Gini and Atkinson coefficients and kernel density estimation to analyse the inequalities observed.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria|
Web page: http://www.ersa.org
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wheaton, William C., 2004. "Commuting, congestion, and employment dispersal in cities with mixed land use," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 417-438, May.
- Clapp, John M & Rodriguez, Mauricio & Pace, R Kelley, 2001. "Residential Land Values and the Decentralization of Jobs," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 43-61, January.
- Waddell, Paul & Berry, Brian J L & Hoch, Irving, 1993. "Residential Property Values in a Multinodal Urban Area: New Evidence on the Implicit Price of Location," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 117-41, September.
- Raymond J.G.M. Florax & Hendrik Folmer & Sergio J. Rey, 2002.
"Specification Searches in Spatial Econometrics: The Relevance of Hendry's Methodology,"
- Florax, Raymond J. G. M. & Folmer, Hendrik & Rey, Sergio J., 2003. "Specification searches in spatial econometrics: the relevance of Hendry's methodology," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 557-579, September.
- Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1999. "A Generalized Moments Estimator for the Autoregressive Parameter in a Spatial Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 509-33, May.
- Mingche M. Li & H. James Brown, 1980. "Micro-Neighborhood Externalities and Hedonic Housing Prices," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 56(2), pages 125-141.
- Yiu, C.Y. & Tam, C.S., 2007. "Housing price gradient with two workplaces -- An empirical study in Hong Kong," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 413-429, May.
- Goodman, Allen C. & Thibodeau, Thomas G., 1998. "Housing Market Segmentation," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 121-143, June.
- Luc Anselin & Nancy Lozano-Gracia, 2008. "Errors in variables and spatial effects in hedonic house price models of ambient air quality," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 5-34, February.
- G�ran Therborn & K.C. Ho, 2009. "Introduction," City, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 53-62, March.
- Kathleen P. Bell & Nancy E. Bockstael, 2000. "Applying the Generalized-Moments Estimation Approach to Spatial Problems Involving Microlevel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 72-82, February.
- Beckmann, Martin J., 1973. "Equilibrium models of residential land use," Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 361-368, November.
- Yinger, John, 1992. "City and suburb: Urban models with more than one employment center," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 181-205, March.
- Crane, Randall, 1996. "The Influence of Uncertain Job Location on Urban Form and the Journey to Work," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 342-356, May.
- Grieson, Ronald E. & Murray, Michael P., 1981. "On the possibility and optimality of positive rent gradients," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 275-285, May.
- Gwilym Pryce & Kenneth Gibb, 2006. "Submarket Dynamics of Time to Sale," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 34(3), pages 377-415, 09.
- Ross, Stephen & Yinger, John, 1995. "Comparative static analysis of open urban models with a full labor market and suburban employment," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 575-605, October.
- Bartik, Timothy J. & Smith, V. Kerry, 1987.
"Urban amenities and public policy,"
Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,
in: E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 31, pages 1207-1254
- Timothy J. Bartik & V. Kerry Smith, 1996. "Urban Amenities and Public Policy," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers, in: V. Kerry Smith (ed.), Estimating Economic Values for Nature: Methods for Non-Market Valuation, pages 271-318 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- McMillen, Daniel P., 2003. "The return of centralization to Chicago: using repeat sales to identify changes in house price distance gradients," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 287-304, May.
- Fujita,Masahisa, 1991.
"Urban Economic Theory,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521396455, 1.
- E Heikkila & P Gordon & J I Kim & R B Peiser & H W Richardson & D Dale-Johnson, 1989. "What Happened to the CBD-Distance Gradient?: Land Values in a Policentric City," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 21(2), pages 221-232, February.
- J. Barkley Rosser, 2009. "Introduction," Chapters, in: Handbook of Research on Complexity, chapter 1 Edward Elgar.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa10p717. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.