Housework Burdens, Quality of Market Work Time, and Men’s and Women’s Earnings in China
This paper provides the first estimates of the effects of housework burdens on the earnings of men and women in China, using data from the country’s time use survey in 2008. The analysis shows that working women in China not only spend many more hours on housework than their male co-workers but are also more likely to experience interference with their market work by housework activities. Three indicators are introduced to measure the degree to which market work is intertwined with housework. The estimates show that both housework time and its interference with market work have negative effects on the earnings of men and women. Quantitatively, the gender differences in housework-related indicators account for 27 to 28 percent of the gender earnings gap. This result supports the feminist contention that gender inequality at home is a major contributor to the weaker position of women in the labor market.
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