IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/6670.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

What have we learned from the enterprise surveys regarding access to credit by SMEs ?

Author

Listed:
  • Kuntchev, Veselin
  • Ramalho, Rita
  • Rodriguez-Meza, Jorge
  • Yang, Judy S.

Abstract

Using a unique firm level data set -- the Enterprise Surveys -- this paper develops a new measure of credit-constrained status for firms using hard data instead of perceptions data. The paper classifies firms into four ordinal categories: Not Credit Constrained, Maybe Credit Constrained, Partially Credit Constrained, and Fully Credit Constrained to understand the characteristics of the firms that fall into each group. Comparable data from the Enterprise Surveys for 116 countries are used to look at the relationship between firm size and credit-constrained status. First, the analysis finds that small and medium enterprises are more likely to be credit constrained (either partially or fully) than large firms. Furthermore, small and medium enterprises finance their working capital and investments mainly through trade credit and informal sources of finance. These two results hold to a large extent in all the regions of the developing world. Second, although size is a significant predictor of the probability of being credit constrained, firm age is not. Third, high-performing firms, as measured by labor productivity, are less likely to be credit constrained. This result applies to all firms but is not as strong for small firms as it is for large and medium firms. Finally, in countries with high private credit-to-gross domestic product ratios, firms are less likely to be credit constrained. Given the importance of access to credit for firm growth and efficiency, this paper confirms that throughout the developing world access to credit is inversely related to firm size but positively related to productivity and financial deepening in the country.

Suggested Citation

  • Kuntchev, Veselin & Ramalho, Rita & Rodriguez-Meza, Jorge & Yang, Judy S., 2013. "What have we learned from the enterprise surveys regarding access to credit by SMEs ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6670, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6670
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/10/22/000158349_20131022135831/Rendered/PDF/WPS6670.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2005. "Financial and Legal Constraints to Growth: Does Firm Size Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 137-177, February.
    2. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli, 2006. "Small and medium-size enterprises: Access to finance as a growth constraint," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2931-2943, November.
    3. Beck, Thorsten & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2008. "Financing patterns around the world: Are small firms different?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 467-487, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. World Bank Group, 2016. "Unlocking Firm Level Productivity and Promoting More Inclusive Growth," World Bank Other Operational Studies 23792, The World Bank.
    2. World Bank & International Finance Corporation, 2013. "Doing Business 2014 : Understanding Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 16204.
    3. Silvio Contessi & Francesca de Nicola, 2012. "What do we know about the relationship between access to finance and international trade?," Working Papers 2012-054, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    4. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz & Stefan Lutz, 2017. "Financing and performance of female-owned firms in Middle Eastern and African Economies," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2017-09, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
    5. repec:hig:fsight:v:11:y:2017:i:3:p:71-81 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Roxana Gutierrez-Romero & Luciana Méndez Errico, 2015. "The Long-Term Impact of Inequality on Entrepreneurship and Job Creation," Working Papers wpdea1501, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Access to Finance; Banks&Banking Reform; Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress; Microfinance; Investment and Investment Climate;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6670. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.