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From pawn shops to banks : the impact of formal credit on informal households

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  • Ruiz, Claudia

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of expanding access to credit on the decisions and welfare of households. It focuses on the entry of Banco Azteca, the first bank in Mexico targeting households from the informal sector. Panel data suggest that informal households in municipalities with Banco Azteca branches experienced several changes in their saving, credit and consumption patterns. In order to estimate the impact of Azteca's entry, the paper develops a dynamic model of household choices in which the bank is endogenously selecting the municipalities for branch openings. The analysis finds that in municipalities in which the bank entered, households were better able to smooth their consumption and accumulate more durable goods even though the overall proportion of households that save went down by 6.6 percent. These results suggest that the use of savings as a buffer on income fluctuations declines once formal credit is available. What is more, these effects vary across households. Among informal households, those who never receive formal job offers have the highest decline in saving rates. The model is also used to evaluate a legislation to cap interest rates levied by formal credit institutions. Simulations suggest that if the Mexican government were to cap the interest rate of Azteca at the rate for traditional banks, Azteca would stop operating in the poorest and least populated municipalities.

Suggested Citation

  • Ruiz, Claudia, 2013. "From pawn shops to banks : the impact of formal credit on informal households," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6634, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6634
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    15. Bruhn, Miriam & Love, Inessa, 2009. "The economic impact of banking the unbanked : evidence from Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4981, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pascaline Dupas & Sarah Green & Anthony Keats & Jonathan Robinson, 2014. "Challenges in Banking the Rural Poor: Evidence from Kenya's Western Province," NBER Chapters, in: African Successes, Volume III: Modernization and Development, pages 63-101, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Epstein, Brendan & Finkelstein Shapiro, Alan, 2019. "Financial development, unemployment volatility, and sectoral dynamics," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 82-102.
    3. Miriam Bruhn & Inessa Love, 2011. "Gender differences in the impact of banking services: evidence from Mexico," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 493-512, November.
    4. Ana Georgina Marín & Rainer Schwabe, 2019. "Bank Competition and Financial Inclusion: Evidence from Mexico," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 55(2), pages 257-285, September.
    5. Mauricio Carabarín & Adrián de la Garza & Juan Pedro González & Antonio Pompa, 2018. "Banking Correspondents and Financial Inclusion in Mexico," Investigación Conjunta-Joint Research, in: María José Roa García & Diana Mejía (ed.), Financial Decisions of Households and Financial Inclusion: Evidence for Latin America and the Caribbean, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 389-427, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
    6. Mark Kam Loon Loo, 2019. "Enhancing Financial Inclusion in ASEAN: Identifying the Best Growth Markets for Fintech," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(4), pages 1-21, December.
    7. Eduardo A. Cavallo & Tomás Serebrisky & Verónica Frisancho & Jonathan Karver & Andrew Powell & Diego Margot & Ancor Suárez-Alemán & Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Matías Marzani & Solange Berstein & Marian, 2016. "Saving for Development: How Latin America and the Caribbean Can Save More and Better," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 94597 edited by Eduardo A. Cavallo & Tomás Serebrisky, February.
    8. Leora Klapper & Dorothe Singer, 2018. "The role of demand-side data - measuring financial inclusion from the perspective of users of financial services," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The role of data in supporting financial inclusion policy, volume 47, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Oyewo Babajide Michael & Oyewole Oyedayo Sharon, 2014. "Financial System, Financial Inclusion and Economic development in Nigeria," International Journal of Management Sciences, Research Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 2(3), pages 139-148.
    10. Cavallo, Eduardo A. & Serebrisky, Tomás & Frisancho, Verónica & Karver, Jonathan & Powell, Andrew & Margot, Diego & Suárez-Alemán, Ancor & Fernández-Arias, Eduardo & Marzani, Matías & Berstein, Solang, 2018. "Saving for Development: How Latin America and the Caribbean Can Save More and Better," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 7677.
    11. Arturo GARCÃ A-SANTILLÃ N, & Jesica RAMOS-HERNÃ NDEZ, & Sara HERNÃ NDEZ-GONZÃ LEZ, & Patricia RIVERA-SANTIAGO, 2017. "Pawnshops: Are They Really A Solution For The Vulnerable Population?," EcoForum, "Stefan cel Mare" University of Suceava, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Public Administration - Economy, Business Administration and Tourism Department., vol. 6(1), pages 1-52, January.

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    Keywords

    Access to Finance; Banks&Banking Reform; Small Area Estimation Poverty Mapping; Economic Theory&Research; Debt Markets;
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