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The economic impact of banking the unbanked : evidence from Mexico

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  • Bruhn, Miriam
  • Love, Inessa

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of providing financial services to low-income individuals on entrepreneurial activity, employment, and income. The analysis exploits cross-time and cross-municipality variation in the opening of Banco Azteca in Mexico to measure these effects with a difference-in-difference strategy. Banco Azteca opened more than 800 branches simultaneously in 2002, focusing on low-income clients. The results show that the opening of Banco Azteca led to an increase in the number of informal business owners by 7.6 percent. Total employment also increased, by 1.4 percent, and average income went up by about 7 percent.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruhn, Miriam & Love, Inessa, 2009. "The economic impact of banking the unbanked : evidence from Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4981, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4981
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dean Karlan & Jonathan Zinman, 2010. "Expanding Credit Access: Using Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(1), pages 433-464, January.
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    3. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
    4. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
    5. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker & Omar Haider Chowdhury & Daniel L. Millimet, 1998. "Credit Programs for the Poor and the Nutritional Status of Children in Rural Bangladesh," Working Papers 98-4, Brown University, Department of Economics, revised 16 Jan 1998.
    6. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker & Omar Haider Chowdhury & Daniel L. Millimet, 2003. "Credit Programs for the Poor And the Health Status of Children in Rural Bangladesh," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(1), pages 87-118, February.
    7. Coleman, Brett E., 1999. "The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 105-141, October.
    8. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov, 2007. "Big Bad Banks? The Impact of U.S. Branch Deregulation on Income Distribution," NBER Working Papers 13299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-670.
    10. Miriam Bruhn, 2011. "License to Sell: The Effect of Business Registration Reform on Entrepreneurial Activity in Mexico," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 382-386, February.
    11. Karlan, Dean S. & Zinman, Jonathan, 2007. "Expanding Credit Access: Using Randomized Supply Decisions to Estimate the Impacts," Center Discussion Papers 9279, Yale University, Economic Growth Center.
    12. David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2008. "Experimental Evidence on Returns to Capital and Access to Finance in Mexico," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(3), pages 457-482, November.
    13. Robin Burgess & Rohini Pande & Grace Wong, 2005. "Banking for the Poor: Evidence From India," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 268-278, 04/05.
    14. Joseph P. Kaboski & Robert M. Townsend, 2005. "Policies and Impact: An Analysis of Village-Level Microfinance Institutions," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(1), pages 1-50, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Robert Cull & Asl? Demirgüç-Kunt & Timothy Lyman, 2012. "Financial Inclusion and Stability : What Does Research Show?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 9443, The World Bank.
    2. Assunção, Juliano, 2013. "Eliminating entry barriers for the provision of banking services: Evidence from ‘banking correspondents’ in Brazil," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2806-2811.
    3. Prina, Silvia, 2015. "Banking the poor via savings accounts: Evidence from a field experiment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 16-31.
    4. Leora Klapper & Sandeep Singh, 2015. "The Gender Gap in the Use of Financial Services in Turkey," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25412, The World Bank.
    5. Swamy, Vighneswara, 2014. "Financial Inclusion, Gender Dimension, and Economic Impact on Poor Households," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1-15.
    6. Miriam Bruhn & Inessa Love, 2011. "Gender differences in the impact of banking services: evidence from Mexico," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 493-512, November.
    7. Carvalho, Leandro S. & Prina, Silvia & Sydnor, Justin, 2016. "The effect of saving on risk attitudes and intertemporal choices," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 41-52.
    8. Shirantha Heenkenda, 2015. "Determination of financial risk tolerance among different household sectors in Sri Lanka," Asian Journal of Empirical Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(11), pages 206-220, November.
    9. World Bank, 2011. "Measuring Changes in Client Lives through Microfinance : Contributions of Different Approaches," World Bank Other Operational Studies 9452, The World Bank.
    10. Bruhn, Miriam & Zia, Bilal, 2011. "Stimulating managerial capital in emerging markets : the impact of business and financial literacy for young entrepreneurs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5642, The World Bank.
    11. Izabela Karpowicz, 2016. "Financial Inclusion, Growth and Inequality: A Model Application to Colombia," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(6), pages 68-89, June.
    12. Nathanael OJONG, 2014. "Credit Unions As Conduits For Microfinance Delivery In Cameroon," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(2), pages 287-304, June.
    13. Grimm, Michael & Paffhausen, Anna Luisa, 2015. "Do interventions targeted at micro-entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized firms create jobs? A systematic review of the evidence for low and middle income countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 67-85.
    14. repec:rss:jnljms:v2i3p2 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Gutiérrez, Emilio & Teshima, Kensuke, 2016. "Does household financial access facilitate law compliance? Evidence from Mexico," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 120-124.
    16. Asare, Eris & Nakakeeto, Gertrude & Segarra, Eduardo, 2018. "Determinants of the choice of a savings option: "The case of African Households"," 2018 Annual Meeting, February 2-6, 2018, Jacksonville, Florida 266868, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.

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    Keywords

    ; Access to Finance; Banks&Banking Reform; Labor Policies; Corporate Law;

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