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Crop production and road connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa : a spatial analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Dorosh, Paul
  • Wang, Hyoung-Gun
  • You, Liang
  • Schmidt, Emily

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between transport infrastructure and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa using new data obtained from geographic information systems (GIS). First, the authors analyze the impact of road connectivity on crop production and choice of technology. Second, they explore the impact of investments that reduce road travel times. Finally, they show how this type of analysis can be used to compare cost-benefit ratios for alternative road investments in terms of agricultural output per dollar invested. The authors find that agricultural production is highly correlated with proximity (as measured by travel time) to urban markets. Likewise, adoption of high-productive/high-input technology is negatively correlated with travel time to urban centers. There is therefore substantial scope for increasing agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in more remote areas. Total crop production relative to potential production is 45 percent for areas within four hours’ travel time from a city of 100,000 people. In contrast, it is just 5 percent for areas more than eight hours away. Low population densities and long travel times to urban centers sharply constrain production. Reducing transport costs and travel times to these areas would expand the feasible market size for these regions. Compared to West Africa, East Africa has lower population density, smaller local markets, lower road connectivity, and lower average crop production per unit area. Unlike in East Africa, reducing travel time does not significantly increase the adoption of high-input/high-yield technology in West Africa. This may be because West Africa already has a relatively well-connected road network.

Suggested Citation

  • Dorosh, Paul & Wang, Hyoung-Gun & You, Liang & Schmidt, Emily, 2010. "Crop production and road connectivity in Sub-Saharan Africa : a spatial analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5385, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5385
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Diao, Xinshen & Hazell, Peter & Resnick, Danielle & Thurlow, James, 2006. "The role of agriculture in development: implications for Sub-Saharan Africa," DSGD discussion papers 29, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    2. Shenggen Fan & Peter Hazell, 2001. "Returns to Public Investments in the Less-Favored Areas of India and China," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1217-1222.
    3. David Stifel & Bart Minten, 2008. "Isolation and agricultural productivity," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 39(1), pages 1-15, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Vandercasteelen, Joachim & Beyene, Seneshaw Tamru & Minten, Bart & Swinnen, Johan, 2018. "Cities and agricultural transformation in Africa: Evidence from Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 383-399.
    2. repec:fpr:ifpric:9780896292833_16 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Asian Development Bank Institute, 2017. "Myanmar Transport Sector Policy Note: Rural Roads and Access," Working Papers id:11782, eSocialSciences.
    4. Douglas Gollin & Richard Rogerson, 2014. "Agriculture, Roads, and Economic Development in Uganda," NBER Chapters,in: African Successes, Volume IV: Sustainable Growth, pages 69-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Antonio Estache, 2010. "A survey of impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies," Working Papers ECARES 2010_005, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. Ulimwengu, John & Funes, Jose & Headey, Derek & You, Liangzhi, 2009. "Paving the way for development?: The impact of transport infrastructure on agricultural production and poverty reduction in the Democratic Republic of Congo," IFPRI discussion papers 944, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    7. repec:fpr:ifprib:9780896292833 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Ulimwengu, John M. & Funes, Jose & Headey, Derek D. & You, Liang, 2009. "Paving the Way for Development: The Impact of Road Infrastructure on Agricultural Production and Household Wealth in the Democratic Republic of Congo," 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 49292, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    9. Minten, Bart & Koro, Bethlehem & Stifel, David, 2013. "The last mile(s) in modern input distribution: Evidence from Northwestern Ethiopia," ESSP working papers 51, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Qin, Yu & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2016. "The Road to Specialization in Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 1-16.
    11. Richard Damania & Alvaro Federico Barra & Mathilde Burnouf & Jason Daniel Russ, 2016. "Transport, Economic Growth, and Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of Congo," World Bank Other Operational Studies 24044, The World Bank.
    12. Manjunath, Soumya & Kannan, Elumalai, 2015. "Effect of rural infrastructure on agricultural development: District level analysis in Karnataka," Working Papers 345, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore.
    13. Fuglie, Keith O. & Rada, Nicholas E., 2013. "Resources, Policies, and Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Research Report 145368, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    14. World Bank, 2013. "Growth without Borders : A Regional Growth Pole Diagnostic for Southern Africa," World Bank Other Operational Studies 16708, The World Bank.
    15. Guo, Zhe & Kato, Edward & Koo, Jawoo & Nkonya, Ephraim, 2013. "Trends and Patterns of Land Use Change and International Aid in Sub-Saharan Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series 110, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Ibrahim Worku, 2011. "Road Sector Development and Economic Growth in Ethiopia," Working Papers 004, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    17. Steven Block, 2014. "The Decline and Rise of Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1961," NBER Chapters,in: African Successes, Volume IV: Sustainable Growth, pages 13-67 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Yu, Bingxin & Guo, Zhe, 2015. "Measurement of agricultural productivity in Africa south of Sahara: A spatial typology application:," IFPRI discussion papers 1410, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

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    Keywords

    Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Crops&Crop Management Systems; Climate Change and Agriculture; Regional Economic Development; Economic Theory&Research;

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