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An alternative view of tax incidence analysis for developing countries

  • Shah, Anwar
  • Whalley, John

Despite decades of studies, tax incidence analyses for developing countries continue to be based on the same shifting assumptions used in developed country studies - despite obvious pitfalls. Taxes are assumed to be shifted forward to consumers or backward onto factor incomes. Developing countries typically have a much different nontax and regulatory policy than developed countries with such features as more protection, rationed foreign exchange, price controls, black markets, and credit rationing. The authors argue that these features can greatly complicate the incidence effects of taxes in developing countries. They also discuss the implications of their findings for country lending programs and comment on how the extent to which nontax policy reform has already been implemented affects the significance of the points raised in this paper.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 462.

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Date of creation: 31 Jul 1990
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:462
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  1. Nguyen, Trien T. & Whalley, John, 1986. "Equilibrium under price controls with endogenous transactions costs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 290-300, August.
  2. Heady, Christopher, 1987. "Designing Taxes with Migration," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388a), pages 87-98, Supplemen.
  3. Mohammad, Sharif & Whalley, John, 1984. "Rent Seeking in India: Its Costs and Policy Significance," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(3), pages 387-413.
  4. Shoven, John B & Whalley, John, 1984. "Applied General-Equilibrium Models of Taxation and International Trade: An Introduction and Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 22(3), pages 1007-51, September.
  5. Ziderman, Adrian, 1989. "Payroll taxes for financing training in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 141, The World Bank.
  6. Imam, Hasan & Whalley, John, 1982. "General equilibrium with price intervention policies: a computational approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 105-119, June.
  7. Meerman, Jacob, 1980. "The Incidence of Sales and Excise Taxes, or Where Do We Put the Transfers?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(6), pages 1242-48, December.
  8. St-Hilaire, France & Whalley, John, 1983. "A Microconsistent Equilibrium Data Set for Canada for Use in Tax Policy Analysis," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 29(2), pages 175-204, June.
  9. McLure, Charles E, Jr & Thirsk, Wayne R, 1978. "The Inequity of Taxing Iniquity: A Plea for Reduced Sumptuary Taxes in Developing Countries," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(3), pages 487-503, April.
  10. Bird, Richard M., 1987. "A new look at indirect taxation in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 1151-1161, September.
  11. Chaudry-Shah, Anwar, 1988. " Capitalization and the Theory of Local Public Finance: An Interpretive Essay," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(3), pages 209-43.
  12. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-152947 is not listed on IDEAS
  13. Bird, Richard M & Miller, Barbara Diane, 1989. "The Incidence of Indirect Taxes on Low-Income Households in Jamaica," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(2), pages 393-409, January.
  14. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-42, March.
  15. A. Lans Bovenberg, 1987. "Indirect Taxation in Developing Countries: A General Equilibrium Approach," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(2), pages 333-373, June.
  16. John Whalley, 1989. "Recent Trade Liberalization in the Developing World: What is Behind It, and Where is it Headed?," NBER Working Papers 3057, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Bovenberg, A.L., 1987. "Indirect taxation in developing countries : A general equilibrium approach," Other publications TiSEM adac046e-0845-4c4e-904a-5, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  18. Piggott, John & Whalley, John, 1987. "Interpreting Net Fiscal Incidence Calculations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 685-94, November.
  19. Nair, Govindan & Filippides, Anastasio, 1988. "How much do state-owned public enterprises contribute to public sector deficits in developing countries - and why?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 45, The World Bank.
  20. Auerbach, Alan, 1990. "The cost of capital and investment in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 410, The World Bank.
  21. Clarete, Ramon L. & Whalley, John, 1988. "Interactions between trade policies and domestic distortions in a small open developing country," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3-4), pages 345-358, May.
  22. Pinto, Brian, 1988. "Black market premia, exchange rate unification, and inflation in sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 37, The World Bank.
  23. Ahmad, Ehtisham & Stern, Nicholas, 1990. "Tax Reform and Shadow Prices for Pakistan," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(1), pages 135-59, January.
  24. McLure, Charles Jr., 1977. "Taxation and the urban poor in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 169-188, March.
  25. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521266550 is not listed on IDEAS
  26. Mohammad, Sharif & Whalley, John, 1985. "Controls and the Intersectoral Terms of Trade: The Indian Case," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(379), pages 759-66, September.
  27. Anwar M. Chaudry-Shah, 1989. "A Capitalization Approach to Fiscal Incidence at the Local Level," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 65(4), pages 359-375.
  28. John Whalley, 1984. "Regression or Progression: The Taxing Question of Incidence Analysis," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 17(4), pages 654-82, November.
  29. Davies, James B & St-Hilaire, France & Whalley, John, 1984. "Some Calculations of Lifetime Tax Incidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(4), pages 633-49, September.
  30. Ahmad, Ehtisham & Ludlow, Stephen, 1989. "The distributional consequences of a tax reform on a VAT for Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 238, The World Bank.
  31. Charles L. Ballard & Don Fullerton & John B. Shoven & John Whalley, 1985. "General Equilibrium Analysis of Tax Policies," NBER Chapters, in: A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation, pages 6-24 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. Imam, M Hasan & Whalley, John, 1985. "Incidence Analysis of a Sector-specific Minimum Wage in a Two-Sector Harris-Todaro Model," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 100(1), pages 207-24, February.
  33. Browning, Edgar K, 1978. "The Burden of Taxation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(4), pages 649-71, August.
  34. Muhammad Hussain Malik & Najam Us Saqib, 1989. "Tax Incidence by Income Classes in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 13-26.
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