Export promotion agencies : what works and what doesn't
The number of national export promotion agencies (EPAs) has tripled over the past two decades. While more countries have made them part of their national export strategy, studies have criticized their efficiency in developing countries (Hogan, Keesing, and Singer 1991). Partly in reaction to these critiques, EPAs have been retooled (see International Trade Centre, ITC, 1998 or 2000, for example). This paper studies the impact of existing EPAs and their strategies based on a new data set covering 104 industrial and developing countries. Results suggest that on average they have a strong and statistically significant impact on exports. For each $1 of export promotion, the paper estimates a $40 increase in exports for the median EPA. However, there is heterogeneity across regions, levels of development, and types of instruments. Furthermore, there are strong diminishing returns, suggesting that as far as EPAs are concerned, small is beautiful.
|Date of creation:||01 Nov 2006|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Masaaki Kotabe & Michael R Czinkota, 1992. "State Government Promotion of Manufacturing Exports: A Gap Analysis," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(4), pages 637-658, December.
- Timothy J Wilkinson & Lance Eliot Brouthers, 2000. "Trade Shows, Trade Missions and State Governments: Increasing FDI and High-Tech Exports," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 31(4), pages 725-734, December.
- Simeon Djankov & Caroline Freund & Cong S. Pham, 2010.
"Trading on Time,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 92(1), pages 166-173, February.
- Djankov, Simeon & Freund, Caroline & Pham, Cong S., 2006. "Trading on time," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3909, The World Bank.
- Andrew K. Rose, 2007. "The Foreign Service and Foreign Trade: Embassies as Export Promotion," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1), pages 22-38, 01.
- Rose, Andrew K, 2005. "The Foreign Service and Foreign Trade: Embassies as Export Promotion," CEPR Discussion Papers 4953, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Andrew K. Rose, 2005. "The Foreign Service and Foreign Trade: Embassies as Export Promotion," NBER Working Papers 11111, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hausmann, Ricardo & Rodrik, Dani, 2003. "Economic development as self-discovery," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 603-633, December.
- Ricardo Hausmann & Dani Rodrik, 2002. "Economic Development as Self-Discovery," NBER Working Papers 8952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hausmann, Ricardo & Rodrik, Dani, 2002. "Economic Development as Self-Discovery," Working Paper Series rwp02-023, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Hausmann, Ricardo & Rodrik, Dani, 2002. "Economic Development as Self Discovery," CEPR Discussion Papers 3356, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Keesing, Donald B, 1983. "Linking Up to Distant Markets: South to North Exports of Manufactured Consumer Goods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(2), pages 338-342, May.
- Macario, Carla, 2000. "Export growth in Latin America: policies and performance," Copublicaciones, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 1642 edited by Lynne Rienner Publishers.
- Puhani, Patrick A, 2000. " The Heckman Correction for Sample Selection and Its Critique," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 53-68, February.
- Mihir A. Desai & James R. Hines Jr., 2001. "Exchange Rates and Tax-Based Export Promotion," NBER Working Papers 8121, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-161, January.
- Alvarez, Roberto, 2004. "Sources of export success in small- and medium-sized enterprises: the impact of public programs," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 383-400, June.
- F H Rolf Seringhaus & Guenther Botschen, 1991. "Cross-National Comparison of Export Promotion Services: The Views of Canadian and Austrian Companies," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 22(1), pages 115-133, March. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4044. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.