The strategic use and potential demand for an HIV vaccine in Southern Africa
HIV prevalence in Southern Africa is the highest in the world and the impact of HIV/AIDS in the region are devastating at all levels of society, including the wider economy. Government response has lagged behind the pace of the epidemic, but programs are now beginning to focus on a broad range of interventions to combat its further spread and to mitigate its impact. The authors investigate the issues around the targeting of an eventual HIV vaccine. There is at present no vaccine against HIV. Although several candidates are in the trial stage, it is not likely that a vaccine effective against the sub-type of the virus prevalent in Southern Africa will be available for 10-15 years. When it is, it may be expensive, only partially effective, and confer immunity for a limited period only. Vaccination programs will need to make the best use of the vaccine that is available and effective targeting will be essential. The authors identify potential target groups for a vaccine, and estimate how many individuals would be in need of vaccination. They develop a method for estimating how many cases of HIV infection are likely to be avoided for each vaccinated individual. The cases avoided are of two kinds: primary-the individual case that might have occurred in people who are vaccinated, and secondary-the number of people that the vaccinated individual would otherwise have caused to become infected. Both of these depend on assumptions about the efficacy and duration of vaccine protection and the extent and nature of sexual risk behavior in the population groups. The authors distinguish between the HIV cases averted per vaccination and the cases averted per 100 recruits into a vaccination program. The cases averted per 100 recruits is used to develop a priority ranking of the identified population groups for vaccination. The authors discuss the issue of ease of access to those groups and how the differential costs would affect the vaccination strategy. They conclude that an expensive vaccine should be administered to commercial sex workers first, while an inexpensive vaccine would be better administered first to general population groups, in particular, schoolchildren. The authors conclude with a discussion of current levels of public and private expenditure on HIV prevention and treatment, and the implications for an assessment of the willingness to payfor an eventual HIV vaccine.
|Date of creation:||28 Feb 2003|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bloom, David E. & Mahal, Ajay S., 1997.
"Does the AIDS epidemic threaten economic growth?,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 105-124, March.
- David E. Bloom & Ajay S. Mahal, 1995. "Does the AIDS Epidemic Really Threaten Economic Growth?," NBER Working Papers 5148, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tangcharoensathien, Viroj & Phoolcharoen, Wiput & Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan & Kongsin, Sukhontha & Kasemsup, Vijj & Tantivess, Sripen & Suraratdecha, Chutima, 2001. "The potential demand for an AIDS vaccine in Thailand," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 111-139, August.
- Nichter, Mark, 1995. "Vaccinations in the third world: A consideration of community demand," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 617-632, September.
- Cuddington, John T, 1993. "Further Results on the Macroeconomic Effects of AIDS: The Dualistic, Labor-Surplus Economy," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(3), pages 403-417, September.
- Stover, John & Garnett, Geoff P. & Seitz, Steve & Forsythe, Steven, 2002. "The epidemiological impact of an HIV/AIDS vaccine in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2811, The World Bank.
- Cuddington, John T, 1993. "Modeling the Macroeconomic Effects of AIDS, with an Application to Tanzania," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(2), pages 173-189, May.
- C Arndt & J D Lewis, 2000. "The Macro Implications of HIV/AIDS in South Africa: A Preliminary Assessment," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 68(5), pages 380-392, December. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2977. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.