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How the quality of institutions affects technological deepening in developing countries

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  • Clarke, George

Abstract

This paper assesses the effect of institutional quality on research and development (R&D) expenditures in developing countries. The paper finds that the risk of expropriation and the rule of law are correlated with R&D expenditures. Since both institutional variables increase as institutional quality improves (i.e., as risk of expropriation decreases and rule of law improves), this suggests that stronger institutions encourage greater R&D expenditures. The result for the risk of expropriation is more highly significant and far more robust than the result for the'rule of law'. Although R&D is not the primary way that developing countries gain access to technology, this result is interesting for at least two reasons. First, R&D might encourage technological deepening better than other methods that developing countries use to gain access to technology (e.g., through foreign direct investment (FDI) or capital goods imports). Second, past work has shown that another important way that developing countries gain access to technology, through FDI, is also positively correlated with institutional quality (i.e., as institutional quality improves, FDI increases).

Suggested Citation

  • Clarke, George, 2001. "How the quality of institutions affects technological deepening in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2603, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2603
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Aboal, Diego & Noya, Nelson & Rius, Andrés, 2014. "Contract Enforcement and Investment: A Systematic Review of the Evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 322-338.
    2. Ricardo N.Bebczuk, 2002. "R&D expenditures and the role of government around the world," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 29(1 Year 20), pages 109-121, June.
    3. dogru, bulent, 2012. "The effect of instıtutıonal varıables on fdi inflows: Evidence from upper-middle income countries," MPRA Paper 37531, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Law, Siong Hook & Azman-Saini, W.N.W. & Ibrahim, Mansor H., 2013. "Institutional quality thresholds and the finance – Growth nexus," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5373-5381.
    5. Ugur, Mehmet, 2010. "Institutions and economic performance: a review of the theory and evidence," MPRA Paper 25909, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2010.
    6. Wihlborg, Clas, 2002. "Insolvency and Debt Recovery Procedures in Economic Development: An Overview of African Law," WIDER Working Paper Series 027, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    7. Sebastián Fleitas & Andrés Rius & Carolina Román & Henry Willebald, 2013. "Contract enforcement, investment and growth in Uruguay since 1870," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 13-01, Instituto de Economía - IECON.
    8. Paul, Bénédique, 2012. "Technology and institutions: Theoretical aspects of institutional innovation and its deficiency in Haiti," MPRA Paper 39140, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Law, Siong Hook & Habibullah, Muzafar Shah, 2006. "Financial Development, Institutional Quality and Economic Performance in East Asian Economies," Review of Applied Economics, Review of Applied Economics, vol. 2(2).
    10. Peter-Jan Engelen & Marc van Essen, 2013. "Effects of firm-level corporate governance and country-level economic governance institutions on R&D curtailment during crisis times," Chapters,in: Governance, Regulation and Innovation, chapter 3, pages 58-85 Edward Elgar Publishing.

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